It is the global ocean conveyor belt. The evaporation from warm surface water and the influx of fresh water from glaciers lead to saltier water sinks. Heat released to atmosphere warms Europe. If we look at the warmest places, there are warm currents.
-Deep ocean currents are density-driven and differ from surface currents in scale, speed, and energy. Water density is affected by the temperature, salinity (saltiness), and depth of the water. The colder and saltier the ocean water, the denser it is. The greater the density differences between different layers in the water column, the greater the mixing and circulation. Density differences in ocean water contribute to a global-scale circulation system, also called the global conveyor belt.
-The global conveyor belt includes both surface and deep ocean currents that circulate the globe in a 1,000-year cycle. The global conveyor belt's circulation is the result of two simultaneous processes: warm surface currents carrying less dense water away from the Equator toward the poles, and cold deep ocean currents carrying denser water away from the poles toward the Equator. The ocean's global circulation system plays a key role in distributing heat energy, regulating weather and climate, and cycling vital nutrients and gases.
-If effect of species 1 on species 2 is positive and effect of species 2 on species 1 is positive, then MUTUALISM. (+,+)
-If effect of species 1 on species 2 is positive and effect of species 2 on species 1 is negative, then NATURAL PREDATORS (predator/ prey, grazer/ plant, parasite/ host.) (+,-)
-If effect of species 1 on species 2 is neutral and effect of species 2 on species 1 is negative, then AMMENSALISM--> example is animal steps on grass. (0,-)
-If effect of species 1 on species 2 is negative and effect of species 2 on species 1 is negative, then COMPETITION. (-,-)
-there is parasitism, commensalism, and mutualism.
-Fleeting parasitism includes seed-eating birds, cleaner cheaters, and pollinator cheaters.
-Fleeting mutualism includes fruit-eating birds, cleaner fish, and plants and pollinators.
-Typical parasites are long-lasting but less than 1 generation.
-Long-lasting but less than 1 generation mutualism includes mycorrhizae and ants and acadias.
-Many generations, dependent on co-transmission parasitism include wolbachia and plant viruses.
-Many generations dependent on co-transmission mutualism include wolbachia, buchera, cellular organelles. bark beetles and fungi, leaf-cutter ants and fungi, endophytic fungi, termites and protozoa
1. oil spill banished kelp and the possible destruction of kelp and sea grass due to overgrazing of sea urchins
2. Do sea otters affect the ecology of the ocean? Are they the primary causes of the differences on the island?
3. Rat island had less otters and Near Island had more otters.
4. sea otters don't go deep to prey
5. less kelp means more barnacles and mussels; there is less kelp on the Near islands (because there are more otters) which means there is less barnacles and mussels while Rat has more otters and thus less urchins and more kelp
6. otter is the keystone species so they have a wide influence (more kelp means more seals)--> interconnectedness of food webs
7. they looked at decomposers, herbivores, producers, carnviores
9. decomposers, producers, and carnivores are resource limited
10. herbivores are not resource limited which reflects the green world hypothesis (there is still more than enough green vegetation that is not being taken advantage of)
11. they can still be limited by predators, weather, herbivores, catastrophes, territoriality, and interspecific competition
13. carnivores, decomposers, producers