Terms in this set (8)
English philosopher, Wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only an absolute monarchy could keep an orderly society; believed people should give up some freedoms in order to achieve order- called this exchange a social contract
Used reason to analyze economic systems
Wrote a book called The Wealth of Nations, that argued that business activity take place in a free market and without government regulation
Became the leading advocate of laissez faire economics and is considered by some to be the "father of modern economics"
-French philosopher in the mid-1700s
-Compiled great expansion of human knowledge into one work - Encyclopedia
- 28-volume work that that explained new ideas about art, science, government, and religion
- Worked on the Encyclopedia for 27 years and published last volume in 1772
- Work was attacked by French leaders for criticizing church, govt, and legal system
- Publication stopped in 1759, completed remaining volumes in secret
- Encyclopedia was great success and helped spread ideas to N. America and Europe
An English writer who wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women", arguing that women are not naturally inferior to men, but appear to be so because of lack of education, demanded equal rights for women
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property, believed people were naturally tolerant and reasonable
believed that the government was not giving everybody the rights people should have
believed monarchs were not chosen by God, it was a position given to them by the people
believes people are born good but that society eventually corrupts their innocence
believes the government should work for the common good not just the wealthy
believes individuals should give up some freedoms to benefit the whole community
Baron de Montesquieu
Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom.
He was one of the most outspoken French philosophers.
He attacked injustice among the nobility, in the government, and also in the church.
His sharp wit created enemies and he was imprisoned and exiled to England.
Despite his enemies, he continued the struggle for justice, religious toleration and liberty.