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Chapter 3 Educational Psychology Santrock 6th edition, Chapter 7 Educational Psychology Santrock 6th edition
Terms in this set (70)
BRonfenbrenner's theory that development is influenced by five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem and chronosystem
Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory of development
- microsystem, in which the individual spends considerable time
- mesosystem, involves linkages between microsystems
- exosystem, is at work when experiences in another setting influence what students and teachers experience in the immediate context
- macrosystem, involves the broader culture
- chronosystem, includes the sociohistorical conditions of students development
Bioecological Theory (Bronfenbrenner) evaluating
People say he gives too little attention to biological and cogitive factor's in children's development and not addressing the step-by-step developmental changes
Erikson's eight stages
A restrictive and punitive parenting style in which there is little verbal exchange between parents and children; associated with children's social incompetence.
A parenting style that encourages the child to be independent but that still places limits and controls on behavior.
a parenting style of uninvolvement in which parents spend little time with their children; associated with children's social incompetence
a parenting style that includes parental involvement but places few limits or restrictions on children's behavior; linked with children's social incompetence
developmentally appropriate education
Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children and the uniqueness of each child.
An educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move from one activity to another as they desire.
Also called self-image ans self-worth, the individuals overall conception or herself or himself
the identity status in which individuals have neither explored meaningful alternatives nor made a commitment
the identity status in which individuals have made a commitment but have not explored meaningful alternatives
the identity status in which individuals are in the midst of exploring alternatives but have not yet made a commitment
the identity status in which individuals have explored meaningful alternatives and made a commitment
Marcia's Four Statuses of Identity
achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, diffusion
development with respect to the rules and conventions of just interactions between people
The lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, morality is often focused on reward and punishment. The two stages in preconventional reasoning are punishment and obedience orientation (stage 1) and individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange (stage 2).
The second, or intermediate, level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. At this level, individuals abide by certain standards but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society.
The third and highest level in Kohlberg's theory. At this level, morality is more internal. The postconventional level consists of two stages: social contract or utility and individual rights (stage 5) and universal ethical principles (stage 6).
Kohlbergs three levels and six stages of moral development
Justice perspective (Kohlberg)
a moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual; individuals independently make moral decisions
A moral perspective that focuses on connectedness and relationships among people; Gilligan's approach reflects a care perspective.
domain theory of moral development
Theory that moral development includes the domains of social knowledge and reasoning
social conventional reasoning
focuses on conventional rules established by social consensus and convention, as opposed to moral reasoning, which stresses ethical issues
an unselfisch interest in helping another person
a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation, especially in response to someone doing something kind or helpful
John Dewey's concept that every school has a pervasive moral atmosphere even if it does not have a program of moral education
a direct approach to moral education that involves teaching students basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others
An approach to moral education that emphasizes helping people clarify what their lives are for and what is worth working for; students are encouraged to define their own values and understand the values of others.
cognitive moral education
an approach to moral education based on the belief that students should value things such as democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops; Kohlberg's theory has served as the foundation for many cognitive moral education efforts
a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community
feelings, or affect, that occur when an individual is engaged in an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being.
a relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge and thining skills, which comes about through experiences
the view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes
Thoughts, feelings and motives that cannot be observed by others
learning that two events are connected (associated)
approaches to learing
A form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with an unconditioned stimulus such that the neutral stimulus alone produces the same response as the unconditioned stimulus; the neutral stimulus thus becomes a conditioned stimulus.
a method on classical conditioning that reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualzations of increasingly anxiety-provoking situations
operant conditioning (OC)
a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur
reinforcement (reward) (OC)
a consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur
a consequence that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
positive reinforcement (OC)
reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement (OC)
reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is removed
Applied Behavior Analysis
application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior
The principle that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability activity.
involves differentiating among stimuli or environmental events.
occurs when a previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases
a method based on classical conditioning that reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-provokig situations
schedules of reinforcement (Skinner)
partial reinforcement timetables that determine when a response will be reinforced
types of reinforcement schedules
fixed ratio, variable ratio, fixed interval, variable interval
putting reinforcement contingencies into writing
an added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response that increases the likelihood the response will occur
teaching new behaviors by reinforcing succesive approximations to a specified target behavior
decreasing undesirable behaviors
1. use differential reinforcement
2. terminate reinforcement (extinction)
3. remove desirable stimuli
4. present aversive stimuli (punisment)
removing an individual from positive reinforcement
Taking a positive reinforcer away from an individual.
Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory
Emphasizes behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development
social cognitive theory
Bandura's theory that social and cognitive factors, as well as behavior, play important roles in learning.
the belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
learning that involves acquiring skills strategies and beliefs by observing others
processes of observational learning
attention, retention, reproduction, motivation
models in the classroom
modeled demonstration (teacher)
Changing behavior by getting individuals to monitor, manage, and regulate their own behavior rather than letting it be controlled by external factors.
cognitive-behavioral techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior
The self-generation and self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal.
applying the self-regulatory model to homework
1. self-evaluation and monitoring
2. goal setting and strategic planning
3. putting a plain into action and monitoring it
4. monitoring outcomes and refining strategies
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