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109 terms

Lab #1

STUDY
PLAY
frons
forehead
nasus
nose
oculus
eye
facies
face
oris
mouth or oral
mentis
chin
axilla
armpit
brachium
arm
antecubitis
front of elbow
carpus
wrist
palma
palm
pollex
thumb
digits or phalanges
fingers or toes
patella
kneecap
crus
leg
tarsus
ankle
hallux
big toe
pes
foot
femur
thigh
pubis
pubic
inguen
groin
manus
hand
pelvis
pelvic
umbilicus
navel
abdomen
abdominal
mamma
breast
thoracis
thorax
cervicis
neck
bucca
cheek
auris
ear
occulus
eye
cephalon
head
acromion
acromial (shoulder)
dorsum
back
olecrannon
back of elbow
lumbus
lumbar
popliteus
back of knee
sura
calf
calcaneus
heel of foot
planta
sole of foot
proximal
closer to the trunk
distal
farther from the trunk
saggital
vertical plane through the middle that separates the body into left and right parts
coronal (frontal) plane
plane that cuts through the cranium and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
transverse (horizontal) plane
planes that divide the body into superior and inferior portions
integumentary system
Major organs:
• Skin
• Hair
• Sweat glands
• Nails

Functions
• Protects against environmental hazards.
• Helps regulate body temperature
• Provides sensory information
muscular system
Major organs:
• Skeletal muscles and associated tendons.
Functions:
• Provides movement
• Provides protection and support for other tissues.
• Generates heat that maintains body temperature
endocrine system
Major Organs:
• Pituitary gland
• Thyroid gland
• Pancreas
• Suprarenal glands
• Gonads (testes and ovaries)
• Endocrine tissues in other systems
Functions:
• Directs long-term changes in the activities of other organ systems
• Adjusts metabolic activity and energy use by the body.
• Controls many structural and functional changes during development.
skeletal system
Major Organs:
• Bones
• Cartilages
• Associated ligaments
• Bone marrow

Functions:
• Provides support and protection for other tissues
• Stores calcium and other minerals
• Corms blood cells.
Nervous System
Major Organs:
• Brain
• Spinal cord
• Peripheral nerves
• Sense organs
Functions:
• Directs immediate responses to stimuli.
• Coordinates or moderates activities of other organ systems
• Provides and interprets sensory information about external conditions.
Cardiovascular System.
Major Organs:
• Heart
• Blood
• Blood vessels
Functions:
• Distributes blood cells, water, and dissolved materials, including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
• Distributes heat and assists in control of body temperature.
Lymphoid System
Major Organs:
• Spleen
• Thymus
• Lymphatic vessels
• Lymph nodes
• Tonsils
Functions:
• Defends against infection and disease
• Returns tissue fluids to the bloodstream
Digestive System
Major Organs:
• Teeth
• Tongue
• Pharynx
• Esophagus
• Stomach
• Small intestine
• Large intestine
• Liver
• Gallbladder
• Pancreas
Functions
• Processes and digests food
• Absorbs and conserves water
• Absorbs nutrients (ions, water, and the breakdown products of dietary sugars, proteins, and fats)
• Stores energy reserves
Male Reproductive System
Male Organs:
• Testes
• Epididymides
• Ductus deferens
• Seminal vesicles
• Prostate gland
• Penis
• Scrotum
Functions:
• Produces male sex cells (sperm), suspending fluids, and hormones
• Sexual intercourse
Respiratory System
Major Organs:
• Nasal cavities
• Sinuses
• Larynx
• Trachea
• Bronchi
• Lungs
• Alveoli
Functions:
• Delivers air to alveoli (sites in lungs where gas exchange occurs)
• Provides oxygen to bloodstream
• Removes carbon dioxide from bloodstream
• Produces sounds for communication.
Urinary System
Major Organs:
• Kidneys
• Ureters
• Urinary bladder
• Urethra
Functions:
• Excretes waste products from the blood
• Controls water balance by regulating volume of urine produced
• Stores urine prior to voluntary elimination
• Regulates blood ion concentrations and pH
Female Reproduction System
Major Organs:
• Ovaries
• Uterine tubes
• Uterus
• Vagina
• Labia
• Clitoris
• Mammary glands
Functions:
• Produces female sex cells (oocytes) and hormones
• Supports developing embryo from conception to delivery
• Provides milk to nourish newborn infant
• Sexual intercourse
Diaphragm
divides the ventral cavity and an inferior compartment known as abdominopelvic (peritoneal cavity).
7) Abdominal cavity:
contains many digestive glands and organs.
cranial cavity
surrounds the brain
spinal cavity
surrounds the spinal cord
visceral pericardium
inner lining of heart
dorsal
the _____ cavity includes the cranial and vertebral (spinal) cavity.
lenses
ocular
objective lenses
different magnifying lenses on microscope
nucleolus
Production of ribosomes
chromatin
contains DNA which is genetic material for the cell.
plasma membrane
1. separates cellular structures from the tissues and fluids outside the cell.
2. regulates the transport of substances into and out of the cell.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
produces proteins that are secreted by the cell, incorporated into the plasma membrane, or used by lysosomes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
1. synthesis of lipids and steroids
2. detoxification of poisons and drugs.
golgi apparatus
modifies and packages proteins that are produced by the rough endoplasmic reticulum
transport vesicles
transport proteins from the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus
secretory vesicles
transport proteins from the golgi apparatus to the plasma (cell) membrane for cellular secretion.
Lysosomes
1.Digest old, worn-out organelles
2. destroy harmful bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
peroxisomes
1. neutralize toxins produced by cellular metabolism or taken in from the outside.
2. Break down fatty acids.
mitochondria
produce most of the cell's energy in the form of ATP
free ribosomes
produce proteins used for cellular metabolism
cytoskeleton
provides strength and flexibility to the cell and support for the various other organelles
centrioles
1. produce microtubules for the cytoskeleton.
2. form the bases from which cilia and flagella are produced
3. form the mitotic spindle for mitosis
cilia
move substances over cell surfaces
flagella
used for cell locomotion; in humans, found only on sperm cells.
microvilli
increases surface area along cell membrane of cells that absorb substances.
simple diffusion
Net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. (transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide across a cell membrane)
osmosis
Simple diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane (movement of water into and out of cells to maintain osmotic balance)
facilitated diffusion
same as simple diffusion, bu the transported substance must attach to a transport protein in the cell membrane. (transport of glucose into cells)
filtration
movement of an aqueous (water) solution along a pressure gradient, from an area of high hydrostatic pressure to an area of low hydrostatic pressure. (the movement of fluids out of capillary beds; the filtering of blood by the kidney)
active transport
movement of substances against a concentration gradient (from a region of low concentration to a region of high concentration). A transport protein molecule in the membrane is required. (the sodium-potassium pump)
vesicular (bulk) transport
movement across a membrane of large particles and macromolecules. The transported substance is enclosed by a vesicle.
endocytosis
Large particles and macromolecules are transported into a cell.
phagocytosis
endocytosis of undissolved particles such as bacteria, cell debris, or large proteins. (The ingestion of bacteria and viruses by macrophages and white blood cells)
pinocytosis
endocytosis of liquid droplets with dissolved solutes. (absorption of some nutrients by cells in the small intestine)
receptor-mediated endocytosis
endocytosis in which the transported substance must bind to a specific membrane receptor. (the transport of cholesterol into cells)
exocytosis
the secretion of a substance from a cell. (release of hormones by endocrine cells; release of neurotransmitter by nerve cells)
factors affecting diffusion
1. size of particles
2.temperature of the system
3. polarity of the substance being transported
osmosis
A special case of simple diffusion. It talks about the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
hypotonic solution
a solution with a lower total solute concentration.
hypertonic solution
a solution with a higher total solute concentration .
solute
substance that dissolves when added to another substance.
solvent.
the substance that dissolves the solute.
isotonic solution
Under normal conditions, the cells in our body are exposed to ____________-. This means that the solute concentration of the cytoplasm is about the same of extracellular fluid.
functions of epithelial tissue.
1. protection
2. secretion
3. absorption
4. sensory reception
5. filtration
simple squamous
1. Inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium)
2. Lining of body cavities (mesothelium)
simple cuboidal
1. Renal tubules (kidney)
2. Secretory portion of glands
3. liver cells
simple columnar
Inner lining of much of the digestive tract (stomach, small and large intestines)
pseudostratified columnar
Inner lining of trachea and large airways in lung.
stratified squamous
1. epidermis of the skin
2. inner lining of esophagus
3. inner lining of vaginal canal
stratified cuboidal
Ducts of sweat, mammary, and salivary glands.
stratified columnar
1. small portion of male urethra
2. some large ducts of glands
transitional epithelial
Inner lining of urinary tract (urinary bladder, ureter, and part of urethra)