Yoost Chapter 26: Asepsis and Infection Control

airborne transmission
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Terms in this set (57)
health care-associated infections (HAIs)infections acquired while the patient is receiving treatment in a health care facility such as a hospital, long-term care facility, clinic, or primary care officehostsource of infection, can be inanimate objects, human beings, and animals aka reservoirhumoral immunitydefense system (immune response) that involves B lymphocytes producing antibodies in response to antigensimmune responsebody's attempt to recognize and protect itself from substances that are foreign and harmful, triggered by an antigenimmunizationprocess by which an individual develops immunity against a specific agentinfectionthe establishment of a pathogen in a susceptible host, can lead to disease when a pathogen multiplies in a susceptible hostinflammatory responselocal response to cellular injury or infection that causes capillary dilation & leukocyte (WBC) infiltrationmedical asepsisaka clean technique used to prevent infection and break chain of infection, ie hand hygienemode of transmissionmicroorganism's form of transportation to travel from the source to the susceptible hostnormal floranon-disease-causing microorganisms that live within or on the body Benign microorganisms that inhibit pathogenic microorganisms from colonizing healthy individualsparasitesorganisms that live on or in other organisms and are capable of causing diseasepathogenany infectious, disease-causing agent can include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasitespersonal protective equipment (PPE)equipment health care personnel use to protect against spread of infection ie gloves, masks, goggles, gowns, caps, shoe coverings, face shieldsportal of entrymeans by which the microorganism enters the susceptible hostportal of exitmeans by which the pathogen escapes from the reservoir, or source of infectionreplicationreproduction or duplicationreservoirsource of infection, can be inanimate objects, human beings, and animals aka hoststerilizationprocess used to destroy all microorganisms, including their sporessurgical asepsisaka sterile technique used to prevent the introduction of microorganisms from the environment to the patientsusceptible hostsomeone exposed to an infectious disease who is likely to contract the diseasevectorsinsects or animals that carry pathogens from one host to anothervirusessmallest microorganisms; reproduce inside living cells, responsible for causing many diff types of diseasenormal flora, inflammatory response, immune response3 main defenses of body against microorganismsinnate immunitynonspecific immunity, provides immediate defense against foreign antigensadaptive immunityacquired / specific, provides long-term immunity, 2 types = cellular (cell-mediated) and humoral (antibody-mediated)Passive immunityimmunity where person receives an antibody produced in another bodyimmunological memoryoccurs because memory cells produce stronger & faster immune responses upon subsequent exposureinfectious agent, source, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host6 components of chain of infectiondirect contact transmissionphysical transfer of the microorganism from infected individual to susceptible hostindirect contactoccurs when microorganism is transferred by a contaminated object instead of through physical contactacute infectioninfections that develop and run their course rapidlychronic infectioninfection that persists for months or yearsErythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)test that times how fast RBCs settle to the bottom of a tube of whole blood; they settle faster when inflammation is presentStandard precautionsprecautions used for all patients to prevent the spread of infectious diseases by minimizing the risk of transmission or exposure → use when contact w/ potentially infectious bodily materials is possible ie = PPE, education, proper hand hygieneContact precautionsprecautions used when a known or suspected contagious agent may be present wear gloves, gownAirborne precautionsprecautions used when known or suspected contagious diseases can be transmitted by means of small droplets / particles that can remain suspended in the air for prolonged periods of time wear gown, gloves, N95 maskdroplet precautionsused when known or suspected contagious diseases can be transmitted through large droplets suspended in the air wear mask, gown, glovesProtective isolationused for patients who have compromised immune systems → protects the patient from microorganisms in the environmentevaluationongoing process, used to determine whether patient has met their treatment goals, determine the effectiveness of the nursing interventionslocalized infectionsinfections that can cause redness, swelling, warmth, pain, tenderness, drainage, numbness or tingling, loss of function to affected areasystemic infectionsinfections that can cause fever, increases in HR & respiratory rate, lethargy, anorexia, tenderness/enlargement of lymph nodesshift to the leftrelative increase in immature forms of neutrophils (band cells) in response to an infectionphysical sterilizationsterilization that occurs through steam, boiling water, dry heat, radiationchemical sterilizationsterilization that occurs through use of gases or solutionssepsispresence of infectious material, a state of infectioncomplete blood count (CBC)looking at WBC number in blood, if have a differential then can tell how many of each type of WBCpain, position, pee, personal needswhen rounding on patients, check on these 4 P's also have Pumps for some units & Play for kids