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Chapter 8 Microbial growth in Vitro
Terms in this set (40)
Microbial growth is affected by many different environmental factors
the availability of nutrients and moisture
composition of atmosphere
organism that love heat
microbes that grow best at moderate temperatures
cold temperature lover
microorganism that prefer warmer temperatures, but can tolerate or endure very cold temperatures and can be preserved in the frozen state.
prefer acidic environments
prefer environments that are alkaline
grow to love oxygen
grow in the bottom but don't like oxygen
small amount of oxygen 2-10% oxygen
carbon dioxide tiny percent
atmospheric pressure is very high
is the pressure that is exerted on a cell membrane by solutions both inside and outside the cell.
Osmotic pressure purpose
When cells are suspended in a solution, the ideal situation is that the pressure inside the cell is equal to the pressure of the solution outside the cell
movement of a solvent (water), through a permeable membrane, from a solution having a lower concentration of solute to a solution having a higher concentration of solute
when the concentration of solutes in the environment outside of a cell is greater than the concentration of solutes inside the cell. SHRINKS!!!
when the concentration of solutes outside a cell is less than the concentration of solutes inside the cell. BURST OPEN!!!
when the bacteria has complex nutritional requirements
has added inhibitors that discourage the growth of certain organisms without inhibiting growth of the organism being sought
Example of selective media
MacConkey agar- inhibits growth of Gram-positive bacteria and thus is selective for Gram-negative bacteria
is a broth or solid medium containing a rich supply of special nutrients that promotes the growth of fastidious organisms
Examples of enriched media
blood agar and chocolate agar
permits the differentiation of organisms that grow on the medium.
Examples of Differential Media
MacConkey agar is frequently used to differentiate among various Gram-negative bacilli that are isolated from fecal specimens
What is spectrophotometer used for
the measurements of transmittance or reflectance of solutions, transparent or opaque solids, such as polished glass, or gases.
involved the destruction or elimination of all microbes, including cells, spores, and viruses.
involves the elimination of most or all pathogens (except bacterial spores) from nonliving objects
are solutions used to disinfect skin and other living tissues
is the reduction of microbial populations to levels considered safe by public health standards, such as those applied to restaurants
Methods of sterilization:
Dry heat, Moist heat, Filtration, which gas chamber (provide oxygen)
agents having the suffix "-cidal" kill organisms, whereas agents having the suffix "-static" merely inhibits their growth and reproduction
specifically kill bacteria, but not necessarily bacterial endospores
because spore coats are thick and resistant to the effects of many disinfectants, are required to kill bacterial endospores
Name two bacteria sporicidal chemicals can kill
Clostidium and Bacillus
is a process that combines dehydration (drying) and freezing. Is a good method of preserving microorganisms for future use
destroys pathogens through simple heat
How can you check autoclave efficiency
Autoclave tape- appearance of the tape before autoclaving. The dark lines appear on the tape after autoclaving. The dark lines indicate that the proper temperature was achieved
Give 5 characteristic of ideal antimicrobial agent
-have a wide or broad antimicrobial spectrum, meaning that it should kill a wide variety of microbes
- fast acting
- not be affected by the presence of organic matter
- nontoxic to human tissues and noncorrosive and nondestructive to materials on which it is used
- leave a residual antimicrobial film on the treated surface
- soluble in water and easy to apply
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