• Consumptive use value
- Goods used locally, not sold in national or international markets
- Animals: mammals, birds, bushmeat, fish, mollusks, insects
- Plants: wild fruits and vegetables, fibers, fuel wood, building material
• Valued by marketplace equivalents
• If depleted, local cultures affected
Provisioning - food, water, fiber, fuel.
Cultural - spiritual, aesthetic, recreational, educational.
Regulating- climate control, flood control, soil retention, disease regulation.
Supporting - Primary production and soil formation.
Human Well-being and poverty reduction - Good life, stable societies, security from disasters, freedom of choice and action.