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Terms in this set (135)
'Roman history is always being (reinterpreted, falsified, rewritten)'
'In some ways _____ know more about ancient Rome than the Romans themselves did'
The Romans eventually saw their empires as part of a 'manifest ____'
The original motivations behind Rome's expansion remain 'one of history's great (mysteries, puzzles, enigmas)'
'Rome expanded into a world not of communities living at peace with one another but of _______ (constant, brutal, endemic) violence'
Rome entered 'a world of rival power _____, backed up by military force'
'Most of Rome's enemies were as (militaristic, violent, greedy) as the Romans', but they did not win.
For the expansion of Rome up to the 4th century there are no accounts written by contemporary _______ at all.
The first century for which we have masses of evidence on Rome is the ________ century BCE.
All high-level Roman politicians came from 'a wealthy, l________ background'
Even in the first century BC, most Roman buildings were made of ____ or local stone.
Rome before the emperors was 'unimpressive, not to say s_____'
Disease common in marshy ancient Rome
Although in theory about _____ Roman men formed 'the people' in voting terms in the first century, usually a few thousand or hundred chose to turn up to vote..
'Exactly how _______ the people were has always - even in the ancient world - been one of the big controversies in Roman history'
Only the Roman 'people' could make ____
'We have access to more Roman literature...than any one person could now thoroughly master in the course of a _____'
Historian who was an ally of Caesar, infamously corrupt as a governor in N. Africa, but a sharp analyst
Sallust complained that Rome's moral fibre had been destroyed by Rome's success, especially after the year ...
An ancient 'book' was about the size of a modern ----
(Regular, occasional, persistent) hunger was a feature of life for most Romans
The Romulus story is 'myth and legend...even though Romans assumed that it was, in broad terms, ____'
The unheroic elements of the foundation narrative - murder, rape, abduction - have led some modern historians to suggest the whole story was 'c______ as...anti-propaganda by Rome's enemies and victims'
Depictions of Roman foundation narrative as foreign inventions represent an 'over-ingenious, not to say d---- attempt' to explain its oddities
_______ writers never stopped telling, retelling and debating the story of Romulus and Remus
There are (dozens, hundreds, scores)____ of versions of the story of Romulus and Remus
Despite Cicero's praise of Romulus' choice of the site of Rome, the Tiber often _____
Most modern accounts of Romulus and Remus go back to the version of _____
Livy began writing in the (40s, 30s, 20s) BCE
According to Livy, when Romulus killed his brother, he said 'So ____ anyone else who shall leap over my walls.'
Concerning the Rape of the Sabines, Roman writers were p----- by the 'apparent criminality and violence of the incident'.
Livy insists that all the Sabine women who were abducted were u---- at the time.
The Roman writers argue that the Sabine women were abducted only after neighbours refused a treaty. Thus it was a '_____ war'
Beneath the surface of the Roman foundation narratives lie 'some of the most important themes of later Roman history, as well as some of the deepest Roman cultural a....'
The story of the Sabine women raises questions about 'the nature of Roman m____'
The story of the Sabine women reconciling husbands and fathers raises the theme of civil----
To many Romans, the killing of Remus was 'the most (appalling, unpalatable, embarrassing) aspect of the foundation.'
The Romulus and Remus story suggests that 'f... was hard-wired into Roman politics'.
Civil war, we might say, was in the Roman (genes, psyche, character)
'Roman political culture's extraordinary openness and willingness to incorporate o______'
Romans 'were often xenophobic and dismissive of people they called...'
Despite their prejudices, the Romans gradually gave the inhabitants of their provinces '____', culminating in 212 CE.
'Roman slavery was in some respects as _____ as Roman methods of military conquest'
Slavery was not necessarily a ____ sentence
Slaves 'were regularly given their ____. or they bought it'
Roman term for freeing slaves
According to a 3rd C Macedonian king, liberating slaves was a means by which 'the Romans have (bolstered, strengthened, enlarged) their country'.
Rome is a culture where the 'fuzzy boundary between myth and history' is particularly (fuzzy, blurred, unclear)'.
The Romulus and Remus story is '(partly, mainly, pure) myth.'
'Very few towns or cities are founded at a ____, by a single individual'
The name '____' 'was an imaginative construction out of "Roma".'
'"Romulus" was merely the archetypal "Mr ____"'
The Romans believed that 'their pious ____ to religion' was behind their extraordinary success.
'any failure they encountered could be put down to some fault in their dealings with the ...' That might be ignoring bad omens, wrongly conducting a ritual or riding 'roughshod over religious rules'
'Religion (undermined, underpinned, underwrote) Roman power'
Although religion is involved in the story of Romulus, King _____ was called 'the founder of Roman religion.'
Roman religion had no official doctrine, 'no holy ... and hardly even what we would call a belief system.'
Romans '..... the gods existed; they did not believe in them in the internalised sense familiar from most modern world religions.'
Roman religion was not so much about personal salvation or morality as about keeping the relationship between ..... and the gods in order
The 'performance of _____' was vital to Roman religion
'The ____ of animals was a central element in most [Roman religious] rituals.'
'In general, it was a religion of ______, not believing.'
Numa introduced the Vestal Virgins and the ____, which established 'the framework for the annual roster of festivals, holy days and holidays.'
Servius Tullius supposedly organised a census which was further used to organise elections and the _______
In the 'comitia centuriata', the centuries varied in size. The rich were divided into 80 centuries, while there were only 20-30 for the more p___ lower classes
There was just one century for 'the mass of the very _____' voting for the comitia centuriata
'Power was vested in the _____, both communally and individually.'
Servius Tullius could not have produced the comitia centuriata system for Rome: it was too complex and the city too ______
The story of Servius Tullius establishing the census so early underlined the importance of certain features of Roman politics, such as the power of the state over the ______
The story of an early ______ under Servius Tullius shows the Roman commitment to 'documenting, counting and classifying.'
Servius Tullius' reforms pointed to the 'traditional connection between ____ and military roles of the citizen.'
A 'treasured assumption' of the Roman elite was that 'wealth brought both political responsibility and political p-------'
Cicero - Servius Tullius divided the people in the census 'to ensure that voting power was under the control not of the ____ but of the wealthy'
Cicero - Servius Tullius ensured that 'the greatest number did not have the greatest power - a _____ that we should always stand by in politics.' In fact it was a hotly debated principle.
The reigns of the last three Etruscan kings were particularly (harsh, bloody, brief)
THe idea that Rome under the Etruscan kings was an 'Etruscan possession' is 'most ___'
Etruscans: 'there is nothing in the archaeological record to suggest a major t___'
Romans and Etruscans: 'close ____ between the two cultures, yes; conquest, no'
Roman, Greek and Etruscan n_____ found on tombs reflect mobility
Regal times: 'this was a world of big men and w___: powerful individuals who were relatively mobile
On the early period of Rome, 'there is not a single piece of evidence on whose dating all _____ agree'
Rome by the time of the Tarquins benefited 'from its prime position for trading and its p--- to wealthy Etruria'
Rome's 6th century population may have been (10,000; 30,000; 60,000; 75,000)
The rape of the Sabines AND of Lucretia are 'mythic', symbolically marking the beginning and end of the ____ period
'pudicitia' refers to '______' of wife to husband, and Lucretia exemplified it
The rape of Lucretia was 'a fundamentally _____ moment', as it led directly to the expulsion of the kings
The story of the vow of Lucius Junius Brutus that Rome would be rid of kings forever was 'partly a r____ prophecy', as the author knew of Brutus' descendant's assassination of Caesar.
Pliny believed that ____ Porsenna was a king of Rome
....'were to be the most important, defining officials of the new Republic.'
'there was never any formal _____ in Rome between [the] military and civilian roles' of politicians.
Although consuls took over from kings, they embodied several 'key, and decidedly unm... principles of the new political regime.'
Three vital qualities of consuls: elected; in office for just a year; they held office----
'Two central tenets of Republican government were that office holding should always be t---- and that, except in emergencies power should always be shared.'
'Underpinning the whole [Republic] was one single, overriding principle: namely, ____ or libertas.'
The first word of the second book of Livy's 'History', concerning the story of Rome after the monarchy, is '-----'
The definition of 'Roman ____' was a 'controversial question' from the creation of the Republic
The creation of the Republic must have been more 'g-----' and messier than the Romans believed
There is much debate about when the office of consul was ___
The first two consuls were Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius C_____
Livy acknowledged that it was 'simply too long ago' to sort out an accurate ____ of the early officeholders
Fire damage from c. 500 suggests that the overthrow of Tarquin may have been more ______ than the Romans later said
The first recorded use of the term 'consul' was for Lucius Cornelius Scipio B_____, in 298.
Romans called their main political office holders 'm---', even though their function was not mainly legal
Livy says the Gallic sack of Rome in 390 was 'so devastating that the city had to be refounded', under Marcus Furius _______
Third century BC historian and senator of ancient Rome, Fabius P____
Cincinnatus supposedly existed in the ____ century.
The Twelve Tables are an 'a___' to later heroising narratives of the early Republic
Modern scholars have identified about (100, 80, 50, 12) clauses of the Twelve Tables.
Modern historians doubt the accuracy of a clause in the Twelve Tables which seems to say that creditors could divide up debtors' ____
The basic language of the Twelve Tables suggest that 'the conventions of logical argument and rational expression were very much in their ___'
the themes of the Twelve Tables, with their slaves of various degrees, as well as assidui and proletarii, patrons and clients, point to 'a world of multiple i---'
Later Romans saw the Conflict of the Orders as 'a heroic v... of the political liberty of the ordinary citizen'
Voting in the Concilium Plebis was based on geography and tribe rather than on ____
In 326, 'the system of enslavement for debt was abolished, establishing the principle that the liberty of a Roman citizen was an i_______ right.'
During the struggle over the Twelve Tables, the murder of a young woman, ____, proved a turning point.
Many aspects of the accepted story of the Conflict of the Orders 'must be ____'
Virginia, like Lucretia, is probably a ' _____ construct'.
'Once the Romans' military success started, they managed to make it self-____', 'converting defeated enemies Rome's defeated enemies into part of its growing military machine'
'Unchecked ---- eventually did more to destroy than to uphold the Republic.'
'For every young Roman inspired to live up to the achievements of his ancestors, there was another _____ by the weight of tradition and expectation that fell upon him'
Many Roman stories tell of men who killed their..., which tells something about pressures to achieve glory
Some pre-4th century consuls have ____ names, which casts doubt on the chronology of the Conflict of the Orders
There undoubtedly was [a, no, some] struggle between 'a privileged, hereditary minority and the rest' in the 5th and 4th centuries
As the Romans thought, 'the year ____ BCE was a major turning point'
Beard suggests that 'the Roman political system took its characteristic form in the mid ____ century BCE.' This includes the senate.
The capture of ____ added 60 per cent more territory to Rome and gave it 4 more tribes
The supposed attack of ____ BCE helped explain the lack of early documents and set the scene for anxieties about invaders from over the Alps
Two great Roman wars of the 4th century were against the _____ and the Samnites
The Battle of ___ in 295 was a major Roman victory against Samnites, Etruscans and Gauls
'the Romans were not by nature more [religious, belligerent, decadent] than their neighbours and contemporaries'
'Prowess, bravery and deadly ------ in battle were repeatedly celebrated', from general in triumph to rank and file displaying battle scars
our word rostrum comes from the term for battle ....., on display in the Forum
'Roman dominion was primarily over ...., not places'. That was the key to Roman expansion.
One obligation the Romans put on all who came under their control was 'to provide ...'
The Romans 'might lose a battle, but not a ...'
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