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AP Psychology Chapter 15 Terms
Terms in this set (72)
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
Suggests how we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition
assuming that another's behavior is due to personality factors, not situational ones
Explaining behavior as being caused by external influences.
Fundamental Attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Feelings, often based on our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Natural (unconscious) tendency to imitate other peoples speech, inflections & physical movements
moods are contagious - affected by social factors if everyone in a bad mood, i will be too. tone of voice affects mood too
Normative Social Influence
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
Informational Social Influence
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality
attribution theory, fundamental attribution error
social psychology; Stanford Prison Study; college students were randomly assigned to roles of prisoners or guards in a study that looked at who social situations influence behavior; showed that peoples' behavior depends to a large extent on the roles they are asked to play
In 1957 this social psychologist proposed the term cognitive dissonance
1907-1996; Field: social psychology; Contributions: studied conformity, found that individuals would conform even if they knew it was wrong; Studies: conformity, opinions and social pressures
1933-1984; Field: social psychology; Contributions: wanted to see how the German soldiers in WWII fell to obedience, wanted to see how far individuals would go to be obedient; Studies: Shock Study
Developed a technique for measuring implicit biases and applied it to racial words (IAT: Implicit Associations Test). PROVED THAT EVEN THOUGH PEOPLE WILL DENY HAVING EXPLICIT PREJUDICE, THEY STILL HIDE SOME IMPLICIT BIAS
ASKED UNIVERSITY WOMEN TO CRITIQUE AN ESSAY WRITTEN BY A BLACK PERSON, TO GIVE THEM A LEG UP, WOMEN SHOWED UNCONSCIOUS PATRONIZATION
DID A STUDY THAT SHOWED THAT BLACK FACES LOOKED MORE CRIMINAL TO POLICE OFFICERS; THE MORE BLACK, THE MORE CRIMINAL
DID A STUDY THAT SHOWED THE CORRELATION BETWEEN VIEWING VIOLENCE AND BEHAVING AGGRESSIVELY IS ALMOST THE SAME OR EQUAL TO THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING AND LUNG CANCER
A 3rd grade Iowa teacher who in response to assassination of MLK, she divided her class into blue eyes and brown eyes, brown eyes felt inferior to blue eyes, group favoritism, and racism
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group
A phenomenon that occurs in decision making when group members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or its members.
The power of the situation
The power of the individual
The case where a minority of group members influences the behavior or beliefs of the majority
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
Unfounded negative belief of which we're **
** regarding the characteristics of an out-group
unfound negative belief of which we're **
** regarding the characteristics of an out-group
Implicit Racial associations
people associate positive words with positive objects and negative words with negative objects. EX. BLACK PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH WORSE THINGS. THE BLACKER, THE WORSE
A form of Automatic Prejudice, this occurs when people treat certain groups with less harsh standards because of implicit prejudices.
, low expectations and resulting "inflated praise and insufficient criticism" can hinder minority student achievement
A type of implicit prejudice where we assume certain things based on race alone (black man holding a weapon or not).
A condition in which members of society have differing amounts of wealth, prestige, or power.
A way in which new grounds for prejudice are formed. For example, if the circumstances of poverty breed a higher crime rate, someone can then use the higher crime rate to justify continuing the discrimination.
being a victim of discrimination can create either self-blame or anger
The "we" aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to "Who am I?" that comes from our group memberships.
"Us"—people with whom we share a common identity.
"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
The tendency to favor one's own group
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
The tendency of people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
the principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression
Fight or Flight Reaction
the body's response to immediate physical danger; the stress response, Energy is mobilized, either to mount an aggressive response against the danger or to run away
A rejection or exclusion from a group or society by general consent
teaching youths and their parents communication skills, training them to control angers, and encouraging more thoughtful moral reasoning (has brought down re-arrest rates of juveniles).
Instead of "If you don't load the dishwasher, there will be no playing", "YOU CAN PLAY WHEN YOU LOAD THE DISHWASHER"
The false belief that, deep down, women enjoy forcible sex and find it sexually exciting.
Culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations.
Closeness, as in how closely together people live or work.
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
Reward Theory of Attraction
the theory that we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us or whom we associate with rewarding events
TEMPORARY, An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
ENDURING, the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
A display of genuine and unselfish concern for the welfare of others
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Diffusion of Responsibility
Reduction in feelings of personal responsibility in the presence of others. WHY SHOULD I HELP SOMEONE IF SOMEONE ELSE WILL DO IT INSTEAD
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
REDUCING problems by using shared goals to make enemies into friends
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction
a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
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