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chapter 2 vocab


process by which culture is learned and transmitted across the generations


something, verbal or nonverbal, that stands for something else

Psychic Unity of Mankind



actions that individuals take alone and in groups in forming and transforming cultural identities

National culture

cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation

International culture

cultural traditions that extend beyond national boundaries


identifiable cultural patterns existing within a larger culture


tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own standards and values in judging outsiders


borrowing of traits between cultures


exchange of features that results when groups come into continuous firsthand contact

independent invention

process by which humans innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems


series of processes that work to make modern nations and people increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent

Core values

key, basic or central values that integrate a culture


something that exists in very culture


culture pattern or trait that exists in some but not all societies


distinctive or unique culture trait, pattern, or integration

Cultural relativism

idea that to know another culture requires full understanding of its members' beliefs and motivations

human rights

rights based on justice and morality beyond and superior to particular countries, cultures, and religions

Cultural rights

rights vested in religious and ethnic minorities and indigenous societies

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