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Micro test #3
Terms in this set (72)
Cilia on the epithelial cells push microbes away from the lungs (mucocilliary escalator)
Are human intestines anaerobes or facultative anaerobes?
Mostly anaerobes (1000:1) versus facultative anaerobes
protein made by a normal microbiota that influences the host immune response by modifying the secretion of host protein, such as cytokine.
Blood Brain Barrier
a selectively permeable membrane made up of tightly packed capillaries that supply blood to the brain and spinal cord. Large molecules cannot permeate the narrow spaces.
Maternofetal (Placental Barrier)
most microbes can't pass the placenta; however, some find their way through (Listeria monocytogenes).
process by which bacteria can communicate with each other using autoinducer molecules they secrete, concentrations of those chemicals increase with higher populations.
a food or supplement that contains live microorganism and improves intestinal microbial balance.
using bacteriophages to prey on pathogenic bacteria causing infections.3) Fecal transplant: transfer of the intestinal microbiome of a healthy donor to a patient suffering from a severe intestinal disease.
The system of nonspecific mechanisms the body uses for protecting against pathogens.
- Operate from incubation through end of infection
What are the two types of immunity?
innate and adaptive
Immune responses activated by a specific antigen and mediated by B cells and T cells
-become evident only toward the end of the prodromal phase and remain long after the infection clears
-acts faster when a pathogen enters the body a second time (memory)
What are the 2 compounds of blood?
Erythrocytes (RBC) and Leukocytes (WBC)
Leukocytes (WBC) include what kind of cells?
Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)
- Mast cells
A white blood cell of the innate immune system that can phagocytose and kill microbes. (most abundant WBC)
A white blood cell that stains with basic dyes and secretes compounds that aid innate immunity (high-affinity receptors for IgE, associated with allergic responses)
A white blood cell that stains with the acidic dye eosin and secretes compounds that facilitate innate immunity
A white blood cell that secretes proteins that aid innate immunity. Mast cells reside in connective tissues and mucosa and do not circulate in the bloodstream
A white blood cell with a single nucleus that can differentiate into a macrophage or a dendritic cell.
A mononuclear, phagocytic, antigen-presenting cell of the immune system found in tissues. (T cells can then bind to these presented antigens)
Lymphoid stem cells
Further differentiate into WBCs of adaptive immunity
- natural killer cells
White blood cell (WBC) Differential
A laboratory test that counts the types of white blood cells in a patient's blood.
a) Elevated total WBC numbers indicate infection or allergy
b) Elevated neutrophils (& their precursors) suggest bacterial infection
c) Elevated lymphocytes suggest a viral infection
d) Increase in eosinophils can indicate the presence of intestinal parasites or some blood parasites.
What are the barriers to Infection?
-Skin: Keratinocytes (keratin is antimicrobial)
- Mucous membranes
What are the chemical barriers to infection?
- Stomach acid
- Lysozymes in tears
What are the 5 cardinal sings of infection?
Heat, Edema, Redness, Pain, Altered function of movement
How do microbes trigger inflammation?
Macrophages engulf microbes and release inflammatory mediators
Signaling peptide the activates a target cell
What are the steps in surviving phagocytosis?
- Avoid being killed in phagocytosis (Coxiella) - capsules prevent phagocytosisb)
- Escape the phagolysosome (Shigella & Listeria)c)
- Prevent fusion of the phagolysosome (Salmonella)d) -
- Trigger apoptosis (death of the cell) - Shigella
Type 1 interferons
Type I Interferons: induces synthesis of an enzyme that cleaves viral RNA and inhibit viral RNA translation (high antiviral potency)
(1) IFN- α
Type 2 Interferons
Activate WBC to increase the number of MHC (major histocompatibility complex antigens on their surfaces. (work against bacteria)
20 circulating proteins in the blood that prevent blood infections.
3 Pathways of Complement Activation (all pathways converge with the activation of C3)
1) Alternate pathway: Doesn't require antibody/adaptive immune system
2) Classical pathway: depends on the antibody/adaptive immune system
3) Lectin pathway: Requires the synthesis of mannose-binding lectin in response to cytokines released from macrophage
What are the key cells in the Adaptive Immune System?
- B Cells
- T Cells
B cells (Humoral Immunity)
make plasma cells that make antibodies (fight well against bacteria)
T Cells (Cell-Mediated Immunity)
2 general types (good for fighting intracellular pathogens like viruses)
- Helper T Cells
- Cytotoxic T Cells
A compound, recognized as foreign by the cell, that elicits an adaptive immune response.
a fully differentiated antibody producing cell. (B cell after being stimulated by an antigen)
a small compound that must be conjugated to a larger carrier antigen to elicit an antibody response.
a small segment of an antigen that can elicit an immune response (an antigen can have several epitopes).
Antigen-Presenting Cell (APC)
an immune cell that can process antigens into epitopes and display those epitopes on the cell surface for recognition by naïve T cells.
Cytotoxic T cell (TC cell)
A T cell that expresses CD8 on its cell surface, binds MHC I-presented epitopes, and can secrete toxic proteins such as Perforin (opens a hole in cell) & granzymes (cause apoptosis of an infected cell).
most abundant, only antibody to cross placenta
- Found in tears, breast milk, saliva, other mucosal surfaces
- Formed from 5 monomeric Ig tethered together (pentamer)
- Found on the surface of B cells (in monomeric form, forms the B cell antigen receptor)
- First antibody detected after an infection
Found on the surface of B cells and signals B cells to make antibodies
Found on the surface of mast cells and basophils
Primary & Secondary Antibody Responses (know the chart below, notice the relationship between IgM and IgG during the Primary vs Secondary responses)
Primary Antibody Response
The production of antibodies upon first exposure to a particular antigen. B cells become activated and differentiate into plasma cells and memory B cells.
a) Antigen binds to B Cells only capable of making one antibody against that antigen
b) Activated B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
c) Plasma cells make antibodies (at first, IgM, then there is a "class switch" to IgG)
d) Some B cells differentiate into memory B cells in case the antigen returns
Secondary Antibody Response (Anamnestic Response)
A Memory-B-cell-mediated rapid increase in the production of antibodies in response to a repeat exposure to a particular antigen.
a) Most memory B cells switch from IgM to IgG as they become plasma cells
b)Huge amounts of IgG are secreted from these plasma cells
c) New and improve IgG antibodies have a higher specificity for the antigen then produced in the primary response.
d) This is why vaccines protect you (quickly) from infectious diseases.
Do T Cells bind to free-floating antigens?
T cells don't bind to free-floating antigen, it must be presented on a cell (APCs)
Massive production of cytokines, leading to excessive tissue damage, inflammation, & shock.
A molecule that directly stimulates T cells (no APC processing), massive cytokines released
DiGeorge Syndrome: incomplete or absent Thymus and parathyroid gland. Treat with thymus transplant
B-cell defects causing antibody deficiencies are the most common
How many types of hypersensitivity are there?
- Type 1: Intermediate Hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis)
- Type 2 Hypersensitivity
- Type 3 Hypersensitivity (immune complex disease)
- Type 4 hypersensitivity (Delayed-type hypersensitivity)
Type I Intermediate Hypersensitivity (anaphylaxis)
An IgE-mediated allergic reaction that causes degranulation of mast cells within minutes of exposure to the antigen.
Type II Hypersensitivity
antibodies bind to the patient's own cell-surface antigens
Type III Hypersensitivity (immune complex disease
An immune reaction triggered when IgG antibody binds to an excess of soluble foreign antigen in the blood.
Type IV Hypersensitivity (delayed-type hypersensitivity)
develops 24-72 hours after exposure to an antigen that the immune system recognizes as foreign. The response is triggered by antigen-specific T cells. It is delayed because the T cells need time to proliferate after being activated by the allergen. (Contact Dermatitis, poison-ivy)
A pathology caused by lymphocytes that can react to self antigens.
What are the different types of autoimmune diseases?
- Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
- Graves' Disease
- Hashimoto's Disease
- Diabetes Type 1
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
butterfly rash, antinuclear antibodies. type 3 hypersensitivity
hyperthyroidism when Ab binds to Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) receptor and abnormally stimulates the production of T3 and T4 (thyroid hormones).
Diabetes type 1
Chronic systemic disease caused by abnormal plasma glucose levels due to faulty glucose metabolism.
hypothyroidism where auto-Ab and T cells destroy thyroid follicle cells
the branch of immunology that analyzes the contents of serum.
how well it can distinguish among closely related targets;
how small a concentration of a microbe, antibody, or antigen a test can detect if it is present in the sample
A technique for measuring insoluble antigens on whole cells. (ABO blood typing)
Injection of a weakened or killed pathogen to stimulate the adaptive immune system to produce specific antibodies and antigen-specific T cells.
Passie vaccination (immunotherapy)
injecting protective antibodies into an individual.
- Antitoxins are a form of passive immunization.
- (Breastfeeding transfers IgA passively)
What are the 6 different vaccine types?
1) killed or inactivated pathogens,
2) live attenuated pathogens,
3) inactivated toxins (toxoids),
4) fragments of a pathogen (subunit vaccines),
5) conjugated vaccines (link highly immunogenic protein to a poorly immunogenic polysaccharide capsule)
6) DNA vaccines.
When enough people in a population become vaccinated to a communicable disease, so the transmission of that disease to an unvaccinated individual becomes less likely.
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