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Elementary Multiple Subjects Praxis: Science
Terms in this set (75)
The tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
strong, supporting layer around the cell membrane in plant cells
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
makes proteins from amino acids
A system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the production, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
the energy an object has because of its position rather than its motion
example: an object held in a persons hand
conservation of energy
a principle stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be altered from one form to another.
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain
the degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or object
the internal energy of an object due to the kinetic energy of its atoms and/or molecules.
the hotter an object is the more kinetic energy it has
the flow of thermal energy from higher temperature to lower temperature
a form of energy resulting from the existence of charged particles (such as electrons or protons), either statically as an accumulation of charge or dynamically as a current.
chemical decomposition produced by passing an electric current through a liquid or solution containing ions.
sources of light
natural and artificial
Reflection (of a Wave)
when a wave bounces off an obstacle.
Refraction (of a Wave)
Change in direction of a wave caused by entering a new medium
absorption (of a Wave)
energy of sound is transformed from one form to another
Diffraction (of a Wave)
The bending of a wave as it moves around an obstacle or passes through a narrow opening
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
An observed change in the frequency of a wave when the source or observer is moving
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
The force of attraction or repulsion of magnetic materials
the energy an object has due to its motion
example: a thrown ball
Newton's First Law
An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Newton's Second Law
Force equals mass times acceleration
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
The Law of Gravity
the scientific law that states every object in the universe attracts another object
a scale of acidity from 0-14
lower pH is more acidic 0-6
7=neutral such as water
8-14 includes more alkaline materials
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
ex. ice melting/water boiling
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
A change in matter that produces one or more new substances
2 or more elements chemically combined
an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation
The average mass of all the isotopes of an element
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
structure of an atom
nucleus made up of protons and neutrons; the electrons make up the surrounding area
A molecule composed of one kind of atom; cannot be broken into simpler units by chemical reactions.
Anything that has mass and takes up space
The Energy Pyramid
A diagram that shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web
The Food Web
A community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
The scientific study of how living things are classified
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms.
The scientific study of heredity
Fundamental life processes
Our Solar System
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
the main characteristics used to classify stars are size, temperature, and brightness.
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
A rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust.
All of the water on earth.
the envelope of gases surrounding the earth or another planet.
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
the effects of coastal topography on tides
more isolated bodies = more extreme tides
created by pull of gravity
formation of waves
wind pushes on water particles
salinity in bodies of water
dependent upon how water enters/leaves the body of water
ex. more drainage such as rivers=less salt
birth of a star
stars begin as huge clouds of dust and other particles called nebulas
nebula contracts -> particles combine with tons of force -> ignites nuclear reaction -> forms a protostar
Occurs when the Moon passes directly between the Sun and Earth and casts a shadow over part of Earth
Occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun
stage in which chromatin is loose, chromosomes are replicated and cell metabolism is occurring
the chromatin condenses to become visible chromosomes. nucleolus disappears and nuclear membrane breaks apart
kinetechore fibers attach to the chromosomes which cause the chromosomes to line up in the center of the cell
centromeres split in half and homologous chromosomes seperate
there are two nuclei with a full set of DNA identical to the parent cell
a type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface
ex. pumice, granite, obsidian
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reactions.
ex. slate, marble, quartzite
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together
ex. coal, shale, limestone
*fossils are typically found in this type of rock
layers of the atmosphere
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
Earth's compositional layers
crust, mantle, core
the different appearances of the moon from Earth throughout the month
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
A relationship between two organisms in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected