AP Biology

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The importance of hydrogen bonding to the properties of water
Accounts for cohesion and adhesion
Cohesion- water sticks to itself (containable)
Adhesion- Water sticks very well to other things; which is why it spreads out easily on surfaces
Adhesion forces are stronger than cohesive forces
Four unique properties of water and how each contributes to life on earth
Cohesion> similar molecules sticking together , water can stay together and move easily.
Surface tension> the surface of the water can resist forces
Adhesion> sticking of substances (capillary action) adhesion + cohesion
High Specific Heat> head needed to change the temperature of 1g. of a substance that's 1 degree Celsius. water can keep its temperature after obtaining large amounts of heat or vice versa, losing large amounts of heat. Hydrogen bonds must absord heat in order to break and release heat when they're formed.
The importance of buffers in biological systems
Used to stabilize the pH of a liquid during dilution > buffer solution can resist pH change when a base or acid is added in a rxn system.
Buffers help organisms maintain homeostasis
The properties of carbon that make it so important
Carbon= chemical element, forms more compounds than any other element
Specific Atomic Number (C), Atomic Weight, Group in Periodic Table, Boiling Point, Melting Point.
The role of dehydration reactions in the formation of organic compounds and hydrolysis in the digestion of organic compounds
Dehydration- to take water out
Dehydration synthesis-putting something together while eliminating h2o.
Carbohydrates- an H and OH are taken from each carbohydrate and form water. Joined by a glycosidic bond. Polysaccharides are formed when dehydration synthesis takes place for a long time. ( organic compounds have molecules that contain carbon)
How to recognize the four biologically important organic compounds (carbs, lipids,
proteins, NA) by their formulas.
all isomers of eachother and have the chemical formula CGH12O6
The cellular functions of the four groups of organic compounds
Carbohydrates= source of energy for organisms
Lipids= store energy
Nucleic Acids= store/ transmit hereditary/ genetic info.
Proteins= control reactions and maintain cell processes
The structural levels of proteins and how changes at any level can affect the activity of the protein
Primary Structure>sequence of its amino acid structural unies> biomolecular structure.
Secondary Structure> mainly formed between hydrogen bonds between atoms. Alpha helixes and beta sheets, located at core of protein.
Tertiary Structure>packing of alpha helixes, beta sheets and random coils on different levels of one polypeptidd chain.
How proteins reach their final shape (conformation), the denaturing impact that heat and pH can have on a protein structure, and how these changes may affect the organism.
Protein tertiary Structure. Some amino acids in a protein are polar, entitling them to positively charged side and negatively charged sides. An altercation in pH means a change in the amount of H+ atoms; whcih attract negative polar amino acids.
Three difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Prokaryotes- No nucleus, only one (but not true chromosomes, plasmid), bacteria and archaea, unicellular
Eukaryotes- Nucleus present, more than one chromosome, multicellular
The structure and function of organelles common to plant and animal cells
Cell membrance, nucleus/nucleoulus, mitochondria, ribosome, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum.
The structure and function of organelles found only in plant cells or only in animal cells
Animal Cells> lysosome, centrosome
Plant Cells> plastids, vacuole, cell wall
Why membranes are selectively permeable
The cell membrane acts as a boundary between internal structure of the cell, and the external environment. Since the cells membrane is selectively permeable, it limits which/the amount of substances that can pass through the cell- in a way it protects the cell from (some) bad substances.
The role of phospholipids, proteins, and carbohydrates in membranes
The cell membrane surrounds the cells; phospholipis, proteins and carbohydrates are important in the structure and function of the cell.
Proteins> carry out processes (transport, communication and energy transduction)
Lipids> insulate the membrane (sheaths)
Carbohydrates> attached to outer surface of proteins> connect cells and can attach hormones
How water will move if a cell is placed in an isotonic, hypertonic, or hypotonic solution and be able to predict the effect of different environments on the organism
Hypotonic- a solution has more solute than solvent
Hypertonic> more solvent than solute
Isotonic> solution where solute and solvent are equal, cells normally regulate at a isotonic solution.
Hyper- above
Hypo- below
Iso- same
Net movement into or out of the cells.
How electrochemical gradients are formed and function in cells
electrical potential and difference in the chemical concentration ax the membrane.
The structure of the graphs for an
endergonic and exergonic reaction
Differ in how they absorb energy.
Endergonic> obtains energy from external areas
Exergonic> from internal regions
The key role of ATP in energy coupling That enzymes work by lowering activation energy
energy coupling- the use of an exergonic process to drive and endergonic process
ATP is an energy coupling agent
The catalytic cycle of an enzyme that results in the production of a final product
Metabolism
The three stages of cell communication: reception, transduction, and response
reception: (signaling molecule)
transduction: Phosphorylation Cascade cAMP Ca2+ Second messenger
response: protein synthesis
cell communication how cells give and receive messages in it's environment
How G-protein-couples receptors receive cell signals and start transduction
activate within signal transduction pathways and cellular responses (eventually)
7 membrane receptors, pass through cell membrane seven times
How receptor tyrosine-kinases receive cell signals and start transduction
(intracellular receptors) the activated receptor initiates a cellular response; gene expression...> transduction
desphosphorylation deactivates protein kinases
How a cell signal is amplified by a
phosphorylation cascade
signal amplification> enzyme cascades, in each step the number of activated products increacs.
Signal amplification elicits a coordinated response and can release many molecules
activated kinase (in phosphorylation) activates a different kinase, repeatedly, and more enzymes are elicited at each step
How a cell response in the nucleus turns on genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it activates enzymes
( removal of phosphate groups)
in cytoplasm, signaling pathways stabilize activity of proteins> activating enzymes
What apoptosis means and why it is
important to normal functioning of
multicellular organisms
the death of cells that occurs as a normal and controlled part of an organism's growth or development.
bbiological processes, embryogenesis, ageing and many diseases
activation of effectors
The structure of the duplicated
chromosome
Duplicated chromosomes are a pair of sister chromatids that are joined by the centromere.
Looks like an X, each half of the x is one copy of the chromosome pair > attached at centromere.
The cell cycle and stages of mitosis
Interphase, prophase, prometaphase,metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
The role of kinases and cyclin in the
regulation of the cell cycle
kinases - enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from (ATP) to substrates> phosphorylation. Vital in metabolism, cell signaling, proteign regulation, cellular trasnport, secretory processes.
The role of mitosis in the distribution of genetic information
Mitosis replicated every chromosome and assures that the daughter cell gets a genetically identical copy. < occurances make for an even distribution of genetic info because the chromosomes divide evenly (unlike meiosis)
The summary equation of cellular
respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ----> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ~38 ATP
The difference between fermentation and cellular respiration
Cellular respiration uses O2 as the electron acceptor in the form of ATP, fermentation sulfur/methane in the form of ATP.
Cellular respiration and fermentation both convert nutrients from sugar, amino acids, and fatty acids to form ATP> but their processes differ and the levels of energy released
Cellular respiration results in 38 ATP, fermentation only produces 2 ATP
ATP production in cellular respiration is slower than in fermentation
The role of glycolysis in oxidizing glucose to two molecules of pyruvate
glycolysis- the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.
pyruvate- substantial in several metabolic pathways
The process that brings pyruvate from the cytosol into the mitochondria and introduces it into the citric acid cycle (Kreb)
Cellular Respiration
How the process of chemiosmosis utilizes the electrons from NADH and FADH2 to produce ATP
Chemiosmosis- movement of ions ax a selecively permeable membrane, down the electrochemical gradient. (generation of ATP) by moving H+ ions across a membrane throughout cellular respiration
The summary equation of photosynthesis including the source and fate of the reactants and products
6CO2 + 12H2O + light -----C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
How leaf and chloroplast anatomy relates to photosynthesis
Co2, h2o and sunlight must be obtained/trasnported to the leaves bc it is obtained through the stomata, where o2 is released. chroplasts include chlorophyll and it is where photosynthesis occurs.
How photosystems convert solar energy to chemical energy
During photosynthesis when chlophyll absorbs light energy from the sun
How linear electron flow (non-cyclic) in the light reactions results in the formation of ATP, NADPH, and O2
linear electron flow- primar pathway involving photsystem II and I and produces atp and NADPH using light energy
How chemiosmosis generates ATP in the light reactions (cyclic)
through phosphorylation
How the Calvin cycle uses the energy molecules of the light reactions to produce G3P.
Calvin Cycle> carbon fixation, reduction reactions
Take place in stroma of chloroplasts and in photosynthetic organisms
The differences between asexual and sexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction- reproduction without sex, a single organism replicates itself. Main process of asexual reproduction is mitosis> mostly occurs in single-celled organisms.
Binary Fission- common in prokaryotes, a living cell divides into 2 cells. Always results in daughter cells, offspring identical to parent unless mutation occurs.
Budding- Used by plants and some animals; cannot simply divide into 2. A small part of plant/animal breaks off and then start to grow until it reaches the same size as the parent> capable of budding again.
Spores
Sexual reproduction- process of reproduction of some animals/plants. Male/ Female.
Gonads- specialized sex organs where gametes are formed. In the male, the gonad is the testes, while in the female, the gonad is the ovaries.
Diploid Cells- 2n: have two homologous copies of each chromosome, usually one from the mother and one from the father.
Haploid Cells-The haploid number (n) is the number of chromosomes in a gamete.
Gametes-specialized sex cells formed in gonads by gametogenesis. The male gamete is the sperm, and the female is ovum or egg.
Zygote-produced by fertilization between two haploid cells, the ovum and the sperm cells, which make a diploid cell.

Asexual Reproduction- no mate needed; many offspring are the result
Sexual reproduction- genetic variation
The role of meiosis and fertilization in sexually reproducing organisms
Independent assortment/ crossing over
Meiosis doubles the chromosome number by combining chromosomes of egg and sperm; genetic variation
The importance of homologous
chromosomes to meiosis
set of one maternal chromosome and one paternal chromosome that pair up in a cell during meiosis, have the same genes in the same loci.
Genetic recombination using homologous chrosomes, producing genotypes in the offspring that are new/different combos. of parental allels > genetic variation.
How the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid through the stages of meiosis
Anaphase II - 2n sister chromatids are separated into chromatids.
Three important differences between mitosis and meiosis
Mitosis results in 2 diploid cells, meiosis results in 4 haploid cells.
Mitosis- homologous chromosomes do not pair
Meiosis- homologous chromosomes pair up
Mitosis- crossing over doesn't occur
Meiosis- crossing over happens at the chiasmata
The importance of crossing over,
independent assortment, and random fertilization to increasing genetic variability
independent assortment> random distribution of genes on different loci of chromosomes
>> 2n possible combinations bc of homologous pair assorts independently
crossing over> homologous chromosomes exchange genes
random fertilization> zygote can have one of 64 trillion possible diploid combinations
Terms associated with genetics problems: P, F1, F2, dominant, recessive, homozygous, heterozygous, phenotype, and genotype
Gregor Mendel
f1- first offspring from a given cross
f2- second offspring from a given cross
dominant- allele that can mas the presence of another allele A
recessive- allele that can be masked in the presence of a dominant /another allele a
phenotype- expressed trait
genotype- alleles, actual genetic information
homozygous- identical alleles
heterozygous- alleles are different
How to derive the proper gametes when working a genetics problem
Using a punnett square
The difference between an allele and a gene
Gene is a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offpsring and is held to determine some characteristics of the offspring
Allele one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome
Alleles are a specific variation of a gene, and a gene is a section of DNA that controls a certain trait.
Allele- blue eyes, green eyes, type A blood, etc
Gene- eye color, blood type, skin color
How to read a pedigree
Circles- females Squares- Men> the trait is always shaded. If an individual is homozygous, the square/circle will be shaded one color. If heterozygous, the square/circle will be shaded half and half.
How to use data sets to determine
Mendelian patterns of inheritance
Using mathematics and chi square
How the chromosome theory of inheritance connects the physical movement of chromosomes in meiosis to Mendel's laws of inheritance
The theory that chromosomes are linear sequences of genes
Assumption that genes are located at specific sites (loci) on chromosomes
The unique pattern of inheritance in sex- linked genes
Sex- linked genes are more common in males than female y<x chromosome
If the male has a dominant/recessive gene on the x loci it will be expressed, there's no trait on the y to mask it.
If the female is heterozygous or homozygous, they will express the dominant trait.
How alteration of chromosome number or structurally altered chromosomes (deletions, duplications, etc) can cause
genetic disorders
deletions mean the loss of DNA sequences
duplications can lead to excess proteins because of extra genes. (developmental defects)
The structure of DNA
Discovered by James Watson and Francis Crick ... Double helix
Base pairs, Adenine Thymine
Guanine, Cytosine
Double helix formed by base pair ^ attached to a sugar phosphate molecule.
The knowledge about DNA gained from the work of Watson, Crick, Wilkins, and Franklin; Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty; and Hershey and Chase
Avery, MCcarty and Macleod- tested protein and DNA, proved that DNAwas a "transforming agent"
Chargaff- principle of base pairing a, t , c , g
Hershey and Chase- used bacteriophages to prove that DNA was the transforming agent
Franklin and Wilkins- used xray- DNA is a double Helix
Watson and Crick- correct DNA structure, helix.
The major steps of replication
1) helicase unwinds, double helix goes into 2 strands
2) polymerase adds nucleotides to the strands
3) ligase binds Okazaki fragments
4) topoisomerase cuts and rejoins the helix
6) RNA primase catalyzes the synthesis of RNA primers
The difference between replication,
transcription, and translation
dna>dna- replication
dna>rna- transription, copying dna to make rna
rna>protein- translation, transforming rna into a protein
The general differences between the
bacterial chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes
in eukaryotic cell chromosomes are within the nucleus or cell center
bacterial chromosomes are circular< both ends connect
eukaryotic- linear
How DNA packaging can affect gene
expression
packaging is regularly done by HDAC and enzymes eliminate the acetyl group from histone and DNA tightly binds to it (or by methylation)
The key terms: gene expression,
transcription, and translation
gene expression: the appearance in a phenotype of a characteristic or effect attributed to a particular gene.
transcription: DNA helix unwinds and one strand is copied by RYNA.
amino acid bases are copied onto amino acid
translation- riobosomes create proteins, rna decodes
The major events of transcription
first step to protein synthesis, each c on the DNA matches a g on the rna, a on the DNA matches u and each t matches a on rna.
How eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
.Splicing, occurs before protein synthesis. Improves translation of the genomes of eukaryotes
The steps to translation
Riobosomes create proteins, rna decodes
How mutations can change the amino acid sequence of a protein
mutations are a permanent change in a dna sequence. external or endogenuous factors, errors in cell making.
The functions of the three parts of the operon
repressor gene- produces a repressor protein, fit to the operator to control the operon
promoter- rna polymerase attaches here to initiate transcription of the genes
operator- the active repressor is fit into notches to inhibit rna polymerase and stop transcription
The role of the repressor gene in operons
repressor genes- produces a repressor protein, fit to the operator to control the operon
The impact of DNA methylation and histone acetylation on gene expression
they all make more gene product > dna methylation adds difficulty for dna polymerase to bind to the dna strand> which inhibits transcription hence no gene product is produced
The key ideas that make PCR possible
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How gel electrophoresis can be used to separate DNA fragments or protein molecules
a technique used to separate mixtures like DNA and proteins. The separation is based on how positively or how negatively charged a molecule is and its size.
How Lamarck's view of the mechanism of evolution differed from Darwin's
idea that an organism can pass on characteristics obtained through it's lifetime to its offspring
Several examples of evidence for evolution
tiktaalik
homologous structures
rock pocket mouse
The difference between structures that are homologous and those that are analogous, and how this relates to evolution
homologous- traits inherited by 2 different organisms from a common ancester
analogy- similarity accounted by convergent evolution
The role of adaptations, variation, time, reproductive success, and heritability in evolution
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How mutation and sexual reproduction each produce genetic variation
mutation can cause genetic variation because offspring don't have the same genes as their parents, their is an error in dna sequencing
sexual reproduction > offspring don't have the same genetic code, heterozygous or homozygous
The conditions for Hardy-Weinberg
equation to calculate allele frequencies and to test whether a population is evolving
frequency of p2
frequency of 2pq
frequency of q^2
The biological concepts of species
members of a population, appearance, groups of individuals that can breed together
Prezygotic and postzygotic barriers that maintain reproductive isolation in natural populations
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How allopatric and sympatric speciation are similar and different
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How an autopolyploid or an allopolyploid chromosomal change can lead to sympatric speciation
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How punctuated equilibrium and
gradualism describe two different tempos of speciation
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Evidence for endosymbiosis
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How continental drift can explain the
current distribution of species
(biogeography)
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How extinction events open habitats that may result in adaptive radiation
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The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness
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The three domains of life including their similarities and their differences
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The key ways in which prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes with respect to genome, membrane-bound organelles, size, and reproduction
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Mechanisms that contribute to genetic diversity in prokaryotes, including transformation, conjugation, transduction, and mutation
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How plants respond to attacks by
herbiovores and pathogens
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The importance of homeostasis and
examples
Keeps the body's temperature stable under the right conditions for cells to live and function well. Enables organisms to adapt to changes in it's environment and is vital to survival
How feedback systems control homeostasis
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One example of positive feedback and one example of negative feedback
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Several elements of an innate immune response- inflammatory
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The difference between B and T cells relative to their activation and action
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How antigens are recognized by immune system cells
.antibodies bind to antigens, which mark them for destruction. B lymphocytes
The differences in humoral and cell-
mediated immunity
humoral- initiated by b lymphocytes, mediated by secreting antibodies. bind to antigens for further destruction
cell mediated- involved t lymphocytes, divide into helper t cells.
Why helper T cells are central to immune responses
recognizes foreign antigens and secreting cytokines that activate t and b cells.
those that help activate ^ and those that drive b cells to make antibodies in humoral immune response.
How hormones bind to target receptors and trigger specific pathways
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The secretion, target, action, and regulation of at least two hormones
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An illustration of both positive and negative feedback in the regulation of homeostasis by hormones
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The anatomy of a neuron
Soma, dendrites receive signal, nucleus, axon
Communication of information throughout the body
The mechanisms of impulse transmission in a neuron
the molecules of the neurotrasnmitter bind with joined receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. NA+ channels open and depolarization happens in the postsynaptic membrane> action potential
The process that leads to release of
neurotransmitter, and what happens at the synapse
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How the vertebrate brain integrates
information, which leads to an appropriate response
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Different regions of the brain have different function
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How behaviors are the result of natural selection
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How innate behavior and various types of learning increase fitness
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How organisms use communication to increase fitness
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Various forms of animal communication
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The role of altruism and inclusive fitness in kin selection
may be a disadvantage to themselves (animals) but beneficial to other. favors the survivial or speead of that individuals genes by benefitting it's reletives.
The role of abiotic factors in the formation of biomes
abiotic- non living> light, temperature chemical products, water, atmosphere.
all essential
How biotic and abiotic factors affect the distribution of biomes
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How changes in these factors may alter ecosystems
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How density, dispersion, and demographics can describe a population
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The differences between exponential and logistic models of population growth
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How density-dependent and density-
independent factors can control population growth
density dependent facot- the effect of the factor on the size of the population is accounted on the original density/ size of the population (diseases, parasites, competition and predation)
density independent factors- the effect of the factor on the size of the population does not depend on the original density/ size of population. weather, harmful chemicals.
The difference between a fundamental niche and a realized niche
fundamental niche- a species can live despite predation, lack of resources etc.
Realized niche- a species does live bc the species can adapt to the factors of predation and lack of resources
The role of competitive exclusion in
interspecific competition
Interspecific competition is competition between species, if two species are competing for the same food sources then competitive exclusion insists that one species will dominate the other> either going exctinct or adapt/find a new food source.
The symbiotic relationships of parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism
Commensalism- one organism benefits, the other is neither harmed nor helped
Mutualism- both organisms benefit
parasitism- only one organism benefits, the other is harmed.
Symbiosis
The difference between primary and
secondary succession
primary succession: colonization of organisms into an area that wasn't colonized by living things prior.
Secondary succession- regeneration of an ecosystem/ living community after a major disturbance (forest fire)
How energy flows through the ecosystem by understand the terms in bold that relate to food chains and food webs: primary producers, autotroph, heterotroph, primary
consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, decomposers
Producers absorb sun's heat and convert the heat into energy, the primary consumer eats the producer (obtaining energy), the secondary consumer eats the primary consumer.
Autotroph- organism that produces complex organic compounds
Heterotroph- organism that cannot dix farbon
Biogeochemical cycles such as the carbon and nitrogen cycles, an how they may impact individual organisms and/or
populations and ecosystems
Biogeochemical cycle is a pathway in which a chemical element moves through biotic and abiotic factors of an ecosystem.
All chemical elements in an organism are included in the biogeochemical cycle.
Nitrogen cycle- the series of processes by which nitrogen and its compounds are interconverted in the environment and in living organisms; including nitrogen fixation and decomposition
Carbon Cycle-
The value of biodiversity and the major human threats to it
Biodiversity> the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat/ecosystem
Habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, population growth, climate change, over consumption
How human activity is changing the Earth
Climate change through promotion of pollution- green house gases, aerosols and cloudiness.
Burning of fossil fuels.
>solar radiation
The Hardy-Weinberg equation and how to determine allele frequency in a population
p2+2pq++q2=1
p=frequency of the "A" allele and q is the frequency of the "a" allele in the population. p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype AA, q2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype aa and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype, Aa.
Conditions for maintaining Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
1) Large population
2) No immigration/ emigration
3) No mutations
4) Random mating
5) No natural selection
If the 5 conditions are not met, then evolution occurs> there is a change in allele frequency in population and Hardy Weinburg equilibrium is not present
How genetic drift, selection, and the
heterozygote advantage affect Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium
Genetic Drift> if the gamete pool was infinite, and if there was no selection/mutation at the locus of 2 alleles we could expect all homozygous dominant alleles.
Selection> maintains genetic polymorphism
Factors that affect diffusion across the membrane
through lipid bilayer> small particules diffuse quicker than larger particles, oxygen, water and carbon dioxide diffuse quickly ax lipid bilayer.
Plasma membrane is semi permeable
Water can freely move ax plasma membrane if polar.
Charged molecules can't diffuse through lipid bilayer
How water potential is affected by solute size or pressure gradients
Potential energy of water per unit volume. Water can be movile through osmosis, gravity, mechanical pressure or matrix affects. Adding solutes to water minimizes the water's potential, making it more negative. And increasing pressure increases the potential, more positive.