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United States History 5001
Terms in this set (92)
Why did European nations come to North America?
- Increase wealth
- Broaden their influence over world affairs
What four European countries colonized North America?
- The Netherlands (The Dutch)
- The English
Why did European countries colonize North America?
Spain: Gold and silver
The Netherlands: Founded New York City. They wanted a set up a city that would be an international city business and trade.
The English: Found goods that had great market in Europe. Found timber for building ships. Found good farm land.
Native American Tribe: Iroquois
Native American tribe of the Norhteastern Woodlands. Lives in longhouses. Farmed the three sisters (squash, beans, and corn) and hunted deer and small animals. Wore clothes made of deerskin.
Native American Tribe: Inuit
Native American tribe of Alaska and Northern Canada. Lived in igloos. Hunted for seals through ice holes with spears. Wore many layers of clothes made of whale intestines.
Native American Tribe: Kwakiutl
Native American tribe of the Northwest Coast. Lived in houses of plank wood that were slightly elevated. Houses had totem poles in front to show how experienced the family inside was. Netted salmon and occasionally went whaling. Wore cedar clothes/skirts.
Native American Tribe: Lakota
Native American tribeof the Great Plains. Lived in tepees made of deerskin and wood rods. Hunted buffalo and farmed if close enough to water. Wore buffalo hide.
Native American Tribe: Pueblo
Native American tribe of the Desert Southwest. Lived in Pueblos made of adobe clay. Farmed the three sisters using underground streams found by digging far enough in the ground. Wore cotton.
13 Colonies: Virgina
Founded by John Smith in 1607 for trade/farming
13 Colonies: New York
Founded by Peter Minuit in 1626/1664 to expand trade
13 Colonies: Massachusetts Bay
Founded by John Winthrop in 1630 for religious freedom
13 Colonies: New Hampshire
Founded by Fernando Gorges and John Mason in 1622 for profit from trade and fishing
13 Colonies: Maryland
Founded by Lord Baltimore in 1634 for profit from land sales; religious and political freedom
13 Colonies: Connecticut
Founded by Thomas Hooker in 1636 to expand trade; for religious and political freedom - orders of CT = 1st constitution in the colonies
13 Colonies: Delaware
Founded by Peter Minuit in 1638/1664 to expand trade - 1st established by the Swedes
13 Colonies: North Carolina
Founded by Group of Proprietors in 1660/1664 to expand trade and for religious and political freedom
13 Colonies: South Carolina
Founded by Group of Proprietors in 1670 for trade and farming
13 Colonies: Georgia
Founded by James Oglethorpe in 1732 for profit from home for debtors, buffer against Spanish Florida
What are the New England colonies?
Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire
What are the Middle colonies?
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware
What are the Southern colonies?
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
How did the Middle colonies make a living?
How did New England make a living?
Fishing, shipbuilding, whaling, lumber
How did the Southern colonies make a living?
Tobacco, rice, and indigo
How did the Native Americans and the colonist interact?
They interacted through trade
Sometimes they got along and sometimes they did not
What threats did the colonist pose to the Native Americans?
- Desire for land
What benefits did the colonist bring to the Native Americans?
What were the causes of the American Revolution?
-Proclamation of 1763
-Lack of Representation in Parliament
-British economic policies following the French & Indian War
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
A tax that the British Pariliament placed on newspapers and official documents sold in the American Colonies.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Treaty of Paris of 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
What were the effects of the American Revolution?
-British forced to leave the colonies
- U.S. gained independence and self rule.
- Sparked the French Revolution
What was the role of Abigail Adams in the American Revolution?
John Adam's wife, she appealed to her husband to protect the rights of women. a member of the Daughters of Liberty
What was the role of John Adams in the American Revolution?
A Massachusetts attorney & politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.
What was the role of Mercy Otis Warren in the American Revolution?
New England author and poet, her plays and stories made fun of the British and helped gain support for American independence.
What was the role of Crispus Attucks in the American Revolution?
The African-Native American man who was the first man to die in the Boston Massacre, also considered the first death in the Revolutionary War.
What was the role of King George III in the American Revolution?
He was the king of England from 1760 to 1820, exercised a greater hand in the government of the American colonies than had many of his predecessors. Colonists were torn between loyalty to the king and resistance to acts carried out in his name. After King George III rejected the Olive Branch Petition, the colonists came to see him as a tyrant.
What was the role of Patrick Henry in the American Revolution?
An American orator and member of the Virginia House of Burgesses who gave speeches against the British government and its policies urging the colonies to fight for independence. In connection with a petition to declare a "state of defense" in virginia in 1775, he gave his most famous speech which ends with the words, "Give me liberty or give me death." He was instrumental in causing the Bill of Rights to be adopted as part of the U.S. Constitution.
What was the role of Thomas Jefferson in the American Revolution?
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
What was the role of Marquis de Lafayette in the American Revolution?
He was very rich and noble when he arrived in America at the age of 19 years old. He believed in the liberty that the Americans were fighting for and asked to help. He became a general on Washington's staff and fought hard. He was known as "the soldier's friend," and is buried in France but his grave is covered with earth from Bunker Hill.
What was the role of Thomas Paine in the American Revolution?
Patriot and writer whose pamphlet Common Sense, published in 1776, convinced many Americans that it was time to declare independence from Britain. He also wrote The American Crisis to urge colonists to join the fight against the British.
What is the significance of 1776?
It was the year that the Declaration of Independence was signed. Congress voted to accept the Declaration of Independence's final wording; this was the first Independence Day on July 4, 1776.
Battles of Lexington and Concord
A 1775 conflict between colonial minutemen & British soldiers attempting to take the colonists' large store of arms; began the Revolutionary War, British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston.
Battle of Saratoga
The battle which was the turning point of the Revolution because after the colonists won this major victory, the French decided to support us with money, troops, ships, etc.
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Boston Tea Party
Demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor. Protest against increased tea prices in which colonists dumped british tea into boston harbor.
British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. The colonists blamed the British and the Sons of Liberty and used this incident as an excuse to promote the Revolution.
American silversmith remembered for his midnight ride (celebrated in a poem by Longfellow) to warn the colonists in Lexington and Concord that British troops were coming (1735-1818)
March 24, 1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
Articles of Confederation
A weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War.
A meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution that designed a government with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies that resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators. All tax bills and revenues would originate in the House. This compromise combined the needs of both large and small states and formed a fair and sensible resolution to their problems.
-each slave would count for 3/5 of a person for taxation and representation purposes
congress could tax imports but not exports
How did Westward Expansion impact Native Americans?
- Forced to move to reservations and government breaks treaties
- Lifestyle changes because of forced assimilation
- Killing the buffalo
Cause of the Civil War
- Economic tensions
- State Rights
- Bleeding Kansas
- Abraham Lincoln
Bleeding Kansas 1854
A series of violent events between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups over the issue of slavery and popular sovereignty in Kansas; set off by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and a factor leading to Civil War
A system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
How did Lincoln contribute to the Civil War?
Lincoln presided over the Union in the American Civil War. He ran on a political platform opposed to the expansion of slavery in the territories.
Reconstruction after the Civil War
Rebuilding the South
What was the purpose of the Reconstruction?
To help the South become a part of the Union again.
What were the challenges of the Reconstruction?
- devastated American society like no other
- south was in total chaos
-many southerners were bitter over the Union military victory
-pres. and congress struggled with the difficult task of reconstruction or rebuilding the nation
The New Deal
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws (1868)
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Wife of John Adams. During the Revolutionary War, she wrote letters to her husband describing life on the homefront. She urged her husband to remember America's women in the new government he was helping to create.
What were the causes of the Dust Bowl?
- High winds
- Overgrazed pastures
- High Heat
What 5 states did the Dust Bowl cover?
- New Mexico
How long did the Dust Bowl last?
What was the illness that residents died from during the Dust Bowl?
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
What were the causes of The Great Depression?
- Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy.
- Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back.
- After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in their growth.
What were the effects of The Great Depression?
- Many banks fail.
- Many businesses and factories fail.
- Millions of Americans are out of work.
- Many are homeless and hungry.
- Families break up and people suffer
Effects of the French and Indian War?
- French lose all land in North America
- English land extends from Atlantic Ocean to Mississippi River
Cause of the French and Indian War
England and France both wanted to control the Ohio River Valley
Causes of the Revolutionary War
The British government decided to make the American colonies pay a large share of the war debt from the French and Indian War. Through the Sugar Act, Stamp Act, and other taxes, the British tried to collect taxes that the American people considered harsh.
Effects of the Revolutionary War
- A long war with Great Britain
- Self government for the United States
- World recognition of United States independence
Declaration of Independence
Signed in 1776 by US revolutionaries; it declared the United States as a free state.
The document written in 1787 and ratified in 1788 that sets forth the institutional structure of the U.S. government and the tasks these institutions perform. It replaced the Articles of Confederation.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution that guarantee freedom of religion, speech, press, petition, and assembly
The Louisiana Purchase
U.S. purchased the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, doubling the size of the U.S. and giving the U.S. full control of the Mississippi River
Why is the Louisiana Purchase Important?
This purchase gave the United States about 827,000 square miles of land for such a small price and allowed the United States to become a much larger territory which would soon turn into new states.
Introduction to the Constitution, beginning, "We the People of the United States..."
God given right for colonists to move west. (Expanding America)
Causes of the War of 1812
Conflict between Great Britain and the United States over British violations of
U. S. Maritime rights.
Effects of the War of 1812
-U.S. gained international respect for withstanding the British attack
-Improved the professionalism of the U.S. Army
-Creation of a cotton manufacturing industry and other manufacturing establishments making the U.S. industrially independent of Europe.
- Signing of the Treaty of Ghent where Great Britian agreed not to try and recall territory lost during the Revolutionary War
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Cause of the War with Mexico
- Annex of Texas
- Border dispute
- Unstable Mexican government
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