Patient Health Education - Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (53)
what is the Purpose of patient education?
to increase the competence and confidence (self-efficacy) of patient for self-management.
(increase the confidence and self-efficacy of a patient for self management)
what is the Goal of patient education?
to prepare the patient and their families for independence,
to maintain or improve their health status when they are on their own.
what are benefits to patient education? (8)
-increase consumer satisfaction
-improve quality of life
-ensure continuing of care
- maximize independence in the performance of activities of daily living
-decrease patient anxiety
- reduce complications of illness
-promote adherence (commitment) to treatment plans
- energize/empower consumers to become actively involved in planning for their care, health, and well-being.
what are some barriers to patient education ? (6)
- lack of time to properly educate patients
- health care professionals do not feel confident with their teaching/educating skills
- health care professionals question the effectiveness of patient education.
- clinical environment may not be conducive to learning
- low priority is assigned to patient education by clinical administrators
- absence of 3rd-party reimbursement to support patient education --> teaching and learning is less than high priority status
What is JCAHO?
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
- JCAHO accreditation is a nationwide symbol of quality that indicates if an organization meets certain performance standards.
- an organization must undergo an on-site survey by a joint commission survey team at least every 3 years.
- joint commissions mission is ..... To continuously improve health care for the public, by evaluating health care organizations and inspiring them to excel in providing safe and effective care of the highest quality and value.
Why do health care organizations seek JCAHO accreditation?
- assists organizations in improving their quality of care
- may be used to meet certain medicare certification requirements
- enhances community confidence
- provides a staff education tool
- and enhances medical staff recruitment
- fulfills state licensure requirements
- favorably influence liability insurance premiums
- enhances access to managed care contracts
- expedites 3rd party payment
What is DNV Health Care Inc.?
DNV is a partner for safer healthcare, providing quality driven accreditation that combines ISO standards and clinical certifications to America's hospitals.
How does DNV compare to JCHAO?
assess learning needs, readiness to learn and learning styles
develop teaching plan based on mutual predetermined behavioral outcomes to meet individual needs
perform the act of teaching using specific instructional methods and tools
determine behavior changes (outcomes) in knowledge, attitudes, and skills.
a person who has a defined health problem.
usually the person is receiving medical care for the health condition.
any combination of learning experiences that help individuals make behavior changes that promote health.
- (knowledge does not equal behavior)
any set of planned, educational activities designed to improve patients health behaviors, health status or both.
- (activities aimed at improving knowledge is not patient education. it is aimed at improving health behavior or health status.)
Patient Self- Management
patients gain skills and the confidence to apply those skills in order to cope with changing roles and changing emotions associated with their health condition.
ways to demonstrate intellectual ability
- likes to.....
read, write, and tell stories
- good at.......
memorizing names, places, dates, and trivia.
- learns best by: saying, hearing, and seeing words.
- likes to.....
conduct experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask questions, explore patterns/relationships
- good at....
math, reasoning, logic, problem solving
- learns best by.....
categorizing, classifying and working with abstract patterns/ relationships.
- likes to....
draw, build, design and create things, daydream, look at pictures/slides, watch movies, play with machines.
- good at....
imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles, reading maps, charts.
- learns best by....
visualizing, dreaming, using the mind's eye, and working with colors/pictures.
- likes to......
sing, hum tunes, listen to music, play an instrument, and respond to music
- good at.....
picking up sounds, remembering, melodies, noticing pitches/rhythms, and keeping time
- learns best by......
rhythm, melody, and music
- likes to.....
move around, touch, talk, use body language
- good at.....
physical activities (sports/dance/acting) and crafts
- learn best by......
touching, moving, interacting with space, processing knowledge through body sensations.
- likes to.....
have lots of friends, talk to people, join groups
- good at.....
understanding people, leading others, organizing, communicating, manipulating, and meditating conflicts.
- learns best by......
sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating, interviewing.
- likes to.....
work alone and pursue own interest
- good at.....
understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, following instincts, pursuing interest/goals. and being original.
- learns best by.....
working alone, individualized projects, self-placed instruction, having own space
Learn through seeing
- need to see body language and facial expression to fully understand the content of a lesson
- may think in pictures
learn best from visual displays including: diagrams, illustrated textbooks, overhead transparencies, videos, flip charts, hands-outs.
- may prefer to take detailed notes to absorb the information.
Learn through listening
- prefer verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say
- interpret the underlying meaning of speech through listening to tone of voice, pitch, speed, and other nuances
- written information may have little meaning until it is heard.
- may benefit from reading written materials out loud.
Learn through, moving doing and touching
- learn best through hands-on approach
- may find it hard to sit still for long periods
- may become distracted by their need for activity and exploration.
Why is patient education important?
- b/c patient education is not only providing information, education, or knowledge about a health issue, but it is trying to engage the patient in a new behavior change and to improve their health status.
- it allows for "shorter hospital stays"
- there are new discoveries and new medical technology in the hospitals, so patients are able to know more about their health + can make those behavior changes.
- increasing numbers of individuals with chronic disease + with multiple health concerns. (providing more education to the patient to better manage the symptoms through medication + behavior change).
Why is it critical for health care providers to understand the process of developing patient education programs?
we have to consider the type of learner our patient is in order to provide the most productive patient education strategies. By.....
assessment, planning. implementation, evaluation
- the providers need to Assess the patients learning needs/ learning styles
- to create/develop a Plan that best fit the patient needs.
- Then Implement or teach the program using methods and tools that adhere to the plan.
- Then Evaluate the behavior changes or outcomes in the patients knowledge, attitude/motivation, and skill.
Be able to compare aspects of JCAHO and DNV accreditation
. DNV - annual on-site survey
. JCAHO - One on-site survey every 3 years
Structure of Standards:
.DNV - less prescriptive, supports CMS quality
. JCAHO - prescriptive standards, recently revised
.DNV - complete survey from ISO 9001 quality management system
. JCAHO - self defined performance improvement
Relationship with Hospitals:
.DNV - Collaborative approach, focused on improving quality of care and services
. JCAHO - Inspection approach, looking for deficiencies.
Ethical Issues in Health Care
- life choices are becoming more complicated + the public is becoming more educated ........
.....ethical issues in health care have become a concern of both:
those who PROVIDE health care + those who RECEIVE it
- individual rights of patient
standards of acceptable behavior
a persons inner value system expressed through external behaviors.
AHA Patient's Bill of Rights -
name the six ethical principles
- refers to an individuals right to make his/her own decisions regarding medical treatment and healthcare services
- means "telling the truth"
- it is closely connected to informed consent decision making and informed consent.
(protects an individual basic rights to make decisions about his or her own body)
- means "do no harm"
- means protection of privileged information
- means "do good"
(it is a requirement to perform critical tasks and duties in care of patients as specified in jab descriptions)
- fairness and equality when distributing goods and services.
- it is intended to provide equal treatment for all in legal matters.
rules of behavior that are enforceable under threat of punishment or penalty.
(such as a fine or imprisonment or both)
Health Care Cost vs. Quality
- health care cost/money is shrinking and it is important to provide quality educational services in the most efficient and cost-effective manner.
- quality is always the number one concern.
Why is it important to understand the differences between ethics and morals?
- ones moral beliefs may conflict with what is ethical.
- ex: abortion
. ethically, abortion can be allowed in a state. but morally, as a health care provider you could have a different opinion or different morals on abortion.
- (a health care provider has to follow the code of ethics, and breaking that code of ethics may result in punishment. so ethics and what is legal have a close relationship bc legal explains ethics terminology w/in the legal system)
Discussion or debated topics - Is it ever legally okay to make health care decisions, as a service-provider, based on morals?
Develop an argument and rationale to support your answer.
no b/c what you think is moral could go against what is legally okay, and what the code of ethics may be stating.
if you could be breaking the "code of ethics", then that may result in a punishment such as a fine or imprisonment or both.
Why do we use theory in patient education?
- Theory helps.....
explain, predict, and change a patients health behavior.
- theory provides the understanding of.....
"targeted health behavior, suitable targets for change, and their environmental context"
- theory can be used to.....
"Facilitate evaluation" and "replicate successful programs"
How do we incorporate theory into the education process?
- theory is a set of interrelated concepts that can help us understand patient health behavior.
explain... why an individual is or isn't engaging in a healthy/bad behavior.
(why are ppl doing what they do/no doing)
predict... a behavior by using theories to understand the intentions of the individual and what the target is.
and how we are going engage/ motivate our patient to make the behavior change in an effective manner.
Theory at a Glance
need to know at least one to write about in an open-ended item. It will be your choice which one you write on
Transtheoretical Model/ Stages of change Model
- describes an individuals motivation and readiness to change a behavior.
- a person moves through behavior change in a 5 stage process:
1. Precontemplation =
- has no intention of making a change within the next 6 months.
- individual needs increased awareness to change.
2. Contemplation =
- intends to take action in the next 6 months
- and needs encourage in making specific plans.
3. Preparation =
- intends to take action within the next 30 days and has taken some behavior steps in right direction.
- assist with setting gradual goals
4. Action =
- has changed behavior for less than 6 months.
- assists with feedback and reinforcement.
- has changed behavior for more than 6 months.
- assists with reminders and avoiding slips/relapse
the way an individual passes through these stages can vary. Some do not progress from one stage to the next, they may relapse to an earlier stage, cycle through the process repeatedly.
(example: smoker, they could relapse in the process of trying to quit smoking).
Theory should be the foundation for all health behavior programs.
It is important to know the constructs of popular theories, but also, how to translate those constructs into practice.
How would you use constructs of various theories to help guide the development of a patient education program?
- no single theory dominates health education
the appropriate choice of theory is based on:
1. Name of the problem
(what health issue are you trying to address with the patient)
(the setting you are working in)
3. Target Audiences
(demographics or background of the population of interest)
4. Program Goals
(the goals of the programs will help determine what theory is best).
What is HIPPA?
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
(it provides policy about privacy and safety of patient medical information)
When was HIPPA enacted?
enacted in 1996
- due to Effects of Title 1.... it was to ensure the health insurance coverage of workers and their families if they changed or lost their job, they didn't lose their insurance, but it was portable and moves with them.
- it also prohibits the cancellation of coverage due to preexisting medical conditions.
What does HIPPA regulate?
regulates the Department of Health and Human services (HHS) Privacy Rule.
- requires all medical records to be computerized
- Standardize records and must maintain the privacy of health insurance
- health care provider officers must meet security requirements
- national identifier requirements - standard national numbers that identity them on standard transactions.
How has HIPPA affected the health care system?
- HIPPA is complex and has stiff penalties, which lead physicians and medical centers to withhold information from those who might have the right to view it.
- a review of the HIPPA privacy rule found that health care providers were unsure about their privacy responsibilities and they often overly guarded to disclosing information to ensure the compliance with the Privacy Rule.
Be able to discuss and explain
how HIPAA has helped to restructure the health care system.
How is health literacy defined?
health literacy can "save lives, save time, and save money"
- the degree to which individuals can read, comprehend/ understand what they are reading, and analyze the information to make better health decisions.
how does Healthy People 2020 address health literacy?
they identify 2 areas:
1. develop appropriate material for audiences with limited literacy.
(we need to write more print material about the health issues ppl are facing but at a lower literacy level that people can read.)
2. improve the reading skills of people with limited literacy
(health literacy programs can offer organizations to improve the overall skill of health literacy levels to individuals)
Be able to identify areas associated with health literacy.
- patient-physician communication
- drug labeling and medical instructions
- health information publications
- informed consent
- responding to medical forms + insurance forms
- giving patient history
- public health training
- assessments for allied professional programs.
AMA's video on health literacy to help you study (it covers the concepts we discussed)
American Medical Association (AMA)
. they found that an individuals "health literacy" is like to be significantly worse than his/her "general literacy" skills.
AMA recommendations to help this problem:
1. creating a "Shame-Free Environment"
-engaging the entire staff to adopt attitudes of helpfulness and
create a safe nonjudgmental environment. Also have them to be alert to clues that show low health literacy.
2. Improving Communication
- by slowing down and using living room language.
- identify key/important concepts, use visual aids, and involve family members.
3. Use the "Teach-Back Method"
- don't just ask a patient, "do you understand?" Have the patient repeat back what they understand
What is PEMAT?
Patient Education Materials Assessment Tool (PEMAT)
- it is an instrument used to assess the.... Understandability and Actionability of "print" and "audiovisual" education materials.
PEMAT = does NOT assess perform Readability test
SMOG = Readability formula test