The Agile Scrum Guide

The Definitive Guide to Scrum: The Rules of the Game
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Definition of SCRUM
A framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.
3 things SCRUM is...
Lightweight
Simple to understand
Difficult to master
What is empiricism? (SCRUM's founding principle.)
Empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known.
What are the 3 pillars that uphold empirical process control?
transparency, inspection, and adaptation
define transparency for SCRUM
Significant aspects of the process must be visible to those responsible for the outcome.
name some examples of transparency aspects for SCRUM
A common language referring to the process must be shared by all participants; and,
Those performing the work and those accepting the work product must share a common definition of "Done".
define Inspection for SCRUM
Scrum users must frequently inspect Scrum artifacts and progress toward a Sprint Goal to detect undesirable variances.
what are the four formal events for inspection and adaptation in SCRUM?
Sprint Planning
Daily Scrum
Sprint Review
Sprint Retrospective
What does a SCRUM team consist of?
The Scrum Team consists of a Product Owner, the Development Team, and a Scrum Master.
Two terms that describe SCRUM teams.
self-organizing and cross-functional
What is a self-organizing team in SCRUM terms?
Self-organizing teams choose how best to accomplish their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team.
What is a cross-functional team in SCRUM terms?
Cross-functional teams have all competencies needed to accomplish the work without depending on others not part of the team.
Why do SCRUM teams deliver products incrementally and iteratively?
to maximize opportunities for feedback
What do incremental deliveries of "done" ensure in SCRUM?
a potentially useful version of working product is always available
What is the responsibility of the product owner in SCRUM?
maximizing the value of the product and the work of the Development Team
What does the product owner manage in SCRUM?
the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog
What is involved in Product Management backlog?
Clearly expressing Product Backlog items;
Ordering the items in the Product Backlog to best achieve goals and missions;
Optimizing the value of the work the Development Team performs;
Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the Scrum Team will work on next; and,
Ensuring the Development Team understands items in the Product Backlog to the level needed.
Can the product owner be a committee in SCRUM?
No.
Note: The Product Owner can represent the desires of a committee in the Product Backlog, but the person managing the Product Backlog is one person.
What does the Product Owner need in order to succeed?
the entire organization must respect the Product Owner's decisions
Who are and what do the Development Team members do in SCRUM?
The Development Team consists of professionals who do the work of delivering a potentially releasable Increment of "Done" product at the end of each Sprint.
What do the Development Team members create in SCRUM?
they create the Increment
Who manages and organizes the Development Team's work in SCRUM?
Development Teams are structured and empowered by the organization to organize and manage their own work.
What does a self-organizing Development Team look like in SCRUM?
They are self-organizing. No one (not even the Scrum Master) tells the Development Team how to turn Product Backlog into Increments of potentially releasable functionality.
What does a cross-functional Development Team look like in SCRUM?
Development Teams are cross-functional, with all of the skills as a team necessary to create a product Increment.
What are the titles on a Development Team in SCRUM?
Scrum recognizes no titles for Development Team members other than Developer.
How are sub-teams organized for the Development Team in SCRUM?
Scrum recognizes no sub-teams in the Development Team, regardless of particular domains that need to be addressed like testing or business analysis
What is the downside of having more than nine Development Team members on a SCRUM team?
Having more than nine members requires too much coordination. Large Development Teams generate too much complexity for an empirical process to manage.
Describe the role of the SCRUM master.
The Scrum Master is responsible for ensuring Scrum is understood and enacted. Scrum Masters do this by ensuring that the Scrum Team adheres to Scrum theory, practices, and rules.
Describe the various ways the SCRUM master serves the Product Owner.
Finding techniques for effective Product Backlog management;
Helping the Scrum Team understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog items;
Understanding product planning in an empirical environment;
Ensuring the Product Owner knows how to arrange the Product Backlog to maximize value;
Understanding and practicing agility; and,
Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed.
Describe the various ways the SCRUM master serves the Development Team.
Coaching the Development Team in self-organization and cross-functionality;
Helping the Development Team to create high-value products;
Removing impediments to the Development Team's progress;
Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed; and,
Coaching the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood.
Describe the various ways the SCRUM Master serves the organization
Leading and coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption;
Planning Scrum implementations within the organization;
Helping employees and stakeholders understand and enact Scrum and empirical product development;
Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team; and,
Working with other Scrum Masters to increase the effectiveness of the application of Scrum in the organization.
Why are all events in SCRUM time-boxed?
so that every event has a maximum duration
How does one adjust a Sprint length in SCRUM?
Once a Sprint begins, its duration is fixed and cannot be shortened or lengthened.
Within the Sprint, what are the purpose of Events in SCRUM?
each event in Scrum is a formal opportunity to inspect and adapt something
Define Sprint for SCRUM.
The heart of Scrum is a Sprint, a time-box of one month or less during which a "Done", useable, and potentially releasable product Increment is created.
How long after the prior Sprint does a new Sprint begin in SCRUM?
A new Sprint starts immediately after the conclusion of the previous Sprint.
What events are contained in a Sprint in SCRUM?
the Sprint Planning, Daily Scrums, the development work, the Sprint Review, and the Sprint Retrospective
What changes to the Sprint are/n't allowed?
No changes are made that would endanger the Sprint Goal;
Quality goals do not decrease; and,
Scope may be clarified and re-negotiated between the Product Owner and Development Team as more is learned.
What is the longest Sprint duration?
Each Sprint may be considered a project with no more than a one-month horizon.
What should each Sprint have to be successful?
Each Sprint has a definition of what is to be built, a design and flexible plan that will guide building it, the work, and the resultant product.
Why should a Sprint be no longer than a month?
When a Sprint's horizon is too long the definition of what is being built may change, complexity may rise, and risk may increase. Sprints also limit risk to one calendar month of cost.
When can a Sprint be cancelled?
A Sprint can be cancelled before the Sprint time-box is over.
Who can cancel a Sprint?
Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel the Sprint, although he or she may do so under influence from the stakeholders, the Development Team, or the Scrum Master.
Give some examples of why a Sprint might be cancelled.
A Sprint would be cancelled if the Sprint Goal becomes obsolete. This might occur if the company changes direction or if market or technology conditions change. In general, a Sprint should be cancelled if it no longer makes sense given the circumstances.
What happens to completed/"done" product items when a Sprint is cancelled?
If part of the work is potentially releasable, the Product Owner typically accepts it.
What happens to incomplete Product Backlog Items when a Sprint is cancelled?
All incomplete Product Backlog Items are re-estimated and put back on the Product Backlog.
What is the maximum time allotted to Sprint planning?
Sprint Planning is time-boxed to a maximum of eight hours for a one-month Sprint. For shorter Sprints, the event is usually shorter.
What questions does Sprint planning answer?
What can be delivered in the Increment resulting from the upcoming Sprint?
How will the work needed to deliver the Increment be achieved?
What does the Development Team do during a Sprint Planning session?
works to forecast the functionality that will be developed during the Sprint
What does the Product Owner do during a Sprint Planning session?
discusses the objective that the Sprint should achieve and the Product Backlog items that, if completed in the Sprint, would achieve the Sprint Goal
What are the inputs to the Sprint Planning meeting?
Product Backlog, the latest product Increment, projected capacity of the Development Team during the Sprint, and past performance of the Development Team
Who picks the number of items in the Product Backlog for input into a Sprint?
Only the Development Team can assess what it can accomplish over the upcoming Sprint.
What is the Sprint Goal?
an objective that will be met within the Sprint through the implementation of the Product Backlog, and it provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment
What is the Sprint Backlog?
the Product Backlog items selected for this Sprint plus the plan for delivering them
Describe a Sprint Review.
when the Scrum Team and stakeholders inspect the outcome of the Sprint and figure out what to do in the upcoming Sprint.
Who is required to attend the Daily Scrum?
The Development Team.
Scrum Master is a "management" position?
True. (It is a Manager "servant" position!) The Scrum Master manages the Scrum process. If the Scrum Master is not a management position, he or she may not have the influence to remove impediments. The Scrum Master does not manage the team.
What happens if the Development team determines it has too little or too much work?
it may renegotiate the selected Product Backlog items with the Product Owner. The Development Team may also invite other people to attend in order to provide technical or domain advice.
What should the Development Team be able to do by the end of the Sprint Planning Session?
explain to the Product Owner and Scrum Master how it intends to work as a self-organizing team to accomplish the Sprint Goal and create the anticipated Increment
What is the Sprint Goal to the Development Team?
It provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment.
What should happen if the work turns out to be different than the Development Team expected?
they collaborate with the Product Owner to negotiate the scope of Sprint Backlog within the Sprint
What is the Daily Scrum?
The Daily Scrum is a 15-minute time-boxed event for the Development Team to synchronize activities and create a plan for the next 24 hours
Why is the Daily Scrum held at the same time and place each day?
to reduce complexity
What should each team member explain during the Daily Scrum?
What did I do yesterday that helped the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal?
What will I do today to help the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal?
Do I see any impediment that prevents me or the Development Team from meeting the Sprint Goal?
What does the Development Team often do right after the Daily Scrum?
often meet immediately after the Daily Scrum for detailed discussions, or to adapt, or replan, the rest of the Sprint's work
What is the Scrum Master's role in the Daily Scrum?
The Scrum Master teaches the Development Team to keep the Daily Scrum within the 15-minute time-box.
Who conducts the Daily Scrum?
The Scrum Master ensures that the Development Team has the meeting, but the Development Team is responsible for conducting the Daily Scrum.
Which rule of the Daily Scrum does the Scrum Master enforce?
that only Development Team members participate in the Daily Scrum
What are the benefits of the Daily Scrum?
Daily Scrums improve communications, eliminate other meetings, identify impediments to development for removal, highlight and promote quick decision-making, and improve the Development Team's level of knowledge. This is a key inspect and adapt meeting.
Why is the Sprint Review held?
to inspect the Increment and adapt the Product Backlog if needed
What is a Sprint Review?
an informal meeting, not a status meeting, and the presentation of the Increment is intended to elicit feedback and foster collaboration
What is the time-box for a Sprint Review (on a one-month Sprint)?
Four hours
What is the Scrum Master's role in a Sprint Review?
The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its purpose. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box.
What are the elements of a Sprint Review?
Attendees include the Scrum Team and key stakeholders invited by the Product Owner;
The Product Owner explains what Product Backlog items have been "Done" and what has not been "Done";
The Development Team discusses what went well during the Sprint, what problems it ran into, and how those problems were solved;
The Development Team demonstrates the work that it has "Done" and answers questions about the Increment;
The Product Owner discusses the Product Backlog as it stands. He or she projects likely completion dates based on progress to date (if needed);
The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning;
Review of how the marketplace or potential use of the product might have changed what is the most valuable thing to do next; and,
Review of the timeline, budget, potential capabilities, and marketplace for the next anticipated release of the product.
What is the purpose of a Sprint Retrospective?
The Sprint Retrospective is an opportunity for the Scrum Team to inspect itself and create a plan for improvements to be enacted during the next Sprint
What is the time-box for a Sprint Retrospective (for a one-month Sprint)?
three hours
What is the role of the Scrum Master in the Sprint Retrospective?
The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its purpose. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box. The Scrum Master participates as a peer team member in the meeting from the accountability over the Scrum process.
What elements take place in a Sprint Retrospective?
Inspect how the last Sprint went with regards to people, relationships, process, and tools;
Identify and order the major items that went well and potential improvements; and,
Create a plan for implementing improvements to the way the Scrum Team does its work.
What should the Scrum Team have identified by the end of the Sprint Retrospective?
the Scrum Team should have identified improvements that it will implement in the next Sprint
Do Scrum Teams have to wait until the Sprint Retrospective to implement changes?
Although improvements may be implemented at any time, the Sprint Retrospective provides a formal opportunity to focus on inspection and adaptation.
What are the Scrum Artifacts
The Product Backlog, Product Increment
What are the Scrum Activities
Product Backlog Refinement, Sprint Planning, Daily Scrum, Sprint Review, Sprint Retrospective
What is the Product Backlog?
The Product Backlog is an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the product and is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product.
Who is responsible for the Product Backlog?
The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog, including its content, availability, and ordering.
When is the Product Backlog complete?
A Product Backlog is never complete. The earliest development of it only lays out the initially known and best-understood requirements. The Product Backlog evolves as the product and the environment in which it will be used evolves.
What attributes do product backlog items have?
description, order, estimate and value
When do requirements stop changing for a Scrum Team?
Requirements never stop changing, so a Product Backlog is a living artifact. Changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology may cause changes in the Product Backlog.
If multiple Scrum Teams are working on the same product, how many Product Backlogs are there?
One Product Backlog is used to describe the upcoming work on the product. A Product Backlog attribute that groups items may then be employed.
What goes into Product Backlog refinement?
an ongoing process of adding detail, estimates, and order to items in the Product Backlog
Who works on Product Backlog refinement
The Product Owner & the Development Team
How much capacity should the Development Team devote to Product Backlog refinement?
no more than 10%
When can the Product Owner update the Product Backlog?
at their discretion - at any time
Who is responsible for all estimates?
the Development Team
Can the Product Owner participate in estimates?
The Product Owner may influence the Development Team by helping it understand and select trade-offs, but the people who will perform the work make the final estimate.
When does the Product Owner reveal the progress towards goal reporting they track?
Always - This information is made transparent to all stakeholders.
Name some trending tools for measuring progress towards goal reporting.
burn-downs, burn-ups, or cumulative flows
Should predictive models be used in progress tracking for Scrum Teams?
Only what has happened may be used for forward-looking decision-making.
What does the Development Team mean by "Sprint Backlog?"
The Sprint Backlog is a forecast by the Development Team about what functionality will be in the next Increment and the work needed to deliver that functionality into a "Done" Increment.
What should the Sprint Backlog be used for?
The Sprint Backlog is a plan with enough detail that changes in progress can be understood in the Daily Scrum.
Who can modify the Sprint Backlog?
The Development Team as they work through the plan and learn more about work needed to achieve the Sprint Goal.
Where does new work the Development Team learns about go during a Sprint?
in the Sprint Backlog
What is the increment?
The Increment is the sum of all the Product Backlog items completed during a Sprint and the value of the increments of all previous Sprints.
What must happen to the increment at the end of a Sprint?
the new Increment must be "Done," which means it must be in useable condition and meet the Scrum Team's definition of "Done."
If the Product Owner doesn't intend to use the increment at the end of a Sprint, must it be in usable condition?
It must be in usable condition regardless of whether the Product Owner decides to actually release it.
What is the Scrum Master's role with artifacts?
The Scrum Master must work with the Product Owner, Development Team, and other involved parties to understand if the artifacts are completely transparent.
What practices can the Scrum Master use if transparency is incomplete?
the Scrum Master must help everyone apply the most appropriate practices in the absence of complete transparency. A Scrum Master can detect incomplete transparency by inspecting the artifacts, sensing patterns, listening closely to what is being said, and detecting differences between expected and real results.
The Scrum Master's job is to work with the Scrum Team and the organization to increase the transparency of the artifacts. This work usually involves learning, convincing, and change. Transparency doesn't occur overnight, but is a path.
What is the important part of "done" for a Scrum team?
Although this varies significantly per Scrum Team, members must have a shared understanding of what it means for work to be complete, to ensure transparency.
Does the definition of "done" stay the same for each Sprint?
As Scrum Teams mature, it is expected that their definitions of "Done" will expand to include more stringent criteria for higher quality.
Should the definition of "done" for a product or system differ by Scrum Team?
Any one product or system should have a definition of "Done" that is a standard for any work done on it.
When do Development Team members take ownership of Sprint Backlog items?
Never. All Sprint Backlog Items are "owned" by the entire Development Team, even though each one may be done by an individual development team member.
It is mandatory that the product increment be released to production at the end of each Sprint.
False. The product increment should be usable and potentially releasable at the end of every Sprint, but it does not have to be released.
Which two (2) things does the Development Team not do during the first Sprint?
Nail down the complete architecture and infrastructure.
Develop a plan for the rest of the project.
When is a system's architecture decided?
Throughout the project, as understanding emerges and the Development Team learns more about the project.
What relationship does Scrum have to technical practices?
Scrum Development Teams with excellent technical practices will likely be more successful.
What are two (2) reasons to automate the software build process?
Automation improves the quality of software by making builds less error-prone.
To get feedback on changes to the code early and often.
What happens during Sprint 0?
There is no such thing as Sprint 0.
Scrum does not include the concept of a Sprint 0. "Sprint 0" has become a phrase misused to describe the planning that occurs prior to the first sprint.
What is code coverage?
The degree to which the system under test has been exercised by tests.
Which is a benefit of establishing naming standards for code?
To make the code more readable.
What does a test written with Test Driven Development represent?
A technical requirement that must be satisfied.
Since the test exists before the code that makes it pass, the test acts a requirement of the system under test.
What are two (2) ways a Development Team can ensure a good application architecture?
The Development Team should have a set of guiding architecture principles that every Development Team member understands and follows when writing code
The Development Team plans some time each Sprint to discuss the architecture needed for the features planned in that Sprint.
The definition of "Done" describes the work that must be completed for every Product Backlog item before it can be deemed releasable. What should the Development Team do when, during the Sprint, it finds out that a problem outside of their control blocks them from doing all this work?
Immediately raise the issue to the Scrum Master as an impediment.
What are some shortcomings of code coverage as a measurement for how well a system or product is tested? (choose 3 answers)
Code coverage does not ensure that the most important or highest risk areas of the code are being exercised by tests.
Code coverage does not necessarily provide functional coverage
Could create incentives to write tests that simply increase code coverage, rather than tests that find bugs without increasing coverage.
Who is responsible for registering the work estimates during a Sprint?
The Development Team
What is the Sprint Review?
It is when the Scrum Team and stakeholders inspect the outcome of the Sprint and figure out what to do in the upcoming Sprint.
What is Scrum to Agile?
Scrum is the most broadly used project management method used in Agile.
What are the items in the Agile Manifesto?
We value:
Individuals and Interactions over Processes and Tools
Working Software over Comprehensive Documentation
Customer Collaboration over Contract Negotiation
Responding to Change over Following a Plan
What is the Vision Statement?
The Vision Statement provides a concise description of the goals of the project which help the team stay focused on what is important from the organization point of view.
What is the Product Roadmap?
The Product Roadmap is an initial visual timeline of major product features to be delivered and is normally created by the Product Owner.
What are Stories?
Stories are requirements that have been turned into deliverable features.
Who writes Stories?
Stories are normally written by the Product Owner based on requirements that come from the customer.
Where are Stories housed?
Stories are housed in the Product Backlog.
Give an overview of the activities in a Sprint
1. Sprint Planning Meetings take place to decide what will go into a Sprint. The Product Owner decides the Priority of the requirements (stories).
2. The Stories make up the Sprint Backlog.
3. The Team breaks down these Stories into Tasks.
4. The Team agrees to deliver these Tasks during the Sprint.
5. The Team holds a daily 15 minute Scrum to collaborate with each other.
6. At the end of the Sprint, the Team demonstrates the completed stories (tasks) to the customer in the Sprint Demo in the Sprint Review meeting.
7. The last activity is the Sprint Retrospective where the team reviews the Sprint and looks for ways of improving (lessons learned).
8. During All: The Scrum Master makes sure the Scrum process is followed entirely and offers coaching to everyone involved.
If there is more than one Scrum Team working on a single project, how is "done" defined?
Each Scrum Team will define its own definition of "done" and deliver its items based on that definition. The integration of each team's definitions should be capable of creating potentially releasable increments at the project level.
What does a project burndown chart show?
The project burndown chart shows the amount of remaining work, instead of amount of completed work; therefore, the line for actual performance goes downward as we proceed and the faster it goes down, the happier we will be!
What does the vertical axis on a burndown typical represent?
The vertical axis typically shows the Product Backlog - the remaining work.
What does the horizontal axis on a burndown chart typically represent?
The horizontal axis typically shows the time that has passed - either the time from the beginning or the number of sprints passed.
Why is a line representing a uniform distribution of line added to a burndown chart?
The line acts as planned progress.
If the actual burndown progress is mostly above the planned progress line, what does this mean?
This means that we are behind our planned progress.
If the actual burndown progress is mostly below the progress line, what does this mean?
This means that we are mostly ahead of schedule.
Are burndown charts done only at the project level?
No. Burndown charts can and should also be done at the Sprint level.
Does Sprint Progress have to be represented in a burndown chart?
No. As long as the progress is documented and openly visible to everyone.
What is a Product Owner's responsibility?
Optimizing the value of the work the Development Team does.
Can exploratory tests be automated?
No.
Who refines the Product Backlog?
The Development Team and the Product Owner.
If an outside issue is preventing a Development Team from doing all of their work, what should they do?
Immediately raise the issue to the Scrum Master as an impediment.
What is test first development?
Designing the tests before satisfying them.
When does the Development Team participate in Product Backlog Refinement?
Anytime during the Sprint.
What does code coverage show?
Code being exercised by tests.
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