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Micro 10 Intro to Pathogenic Bacteria
Terms in this set (37)
What are the 4 typical bacteria?
Rods and Cocci (spheres) that lack unusual morphological features. They can be gram-negative or positive.
E. coli: Gram+, Gram-, or acid-fast?
Gram-neg enteric bacteria
Tubercle bacillus: Gram+, Gram-, or acid-fast?
What bacteria are more similar to each other? Gram +/-, rods/cocci?
Gram+ bacteria differ more from Gram- bacteria than cocci from rods
What 2 categories are the most common agents of infections?
Gram+ cocci and Gram- rods
What are the two most medically relevant genera of gram + cocci bacteria? Morphology?
Streptococcus: chain of beads
Staphylococcus: bunch of grapes
On an agar plate, what signifies a beta-hemolytic streptococcus?
a clear area around the colonies because beta-hemolytic lyse red blood cells.
-most common strep infections
On an agar plate, what signifies an alpha-hemolytic streptococcus?
Cause the blood-containing media on the agar plate to turn green.
Mode of respiration for streptococci?
of all of the groups (A through T) of the beta-hemolytic streptococcus, which is the most important strain in human disease?
A AKA Group A Strep
What is the most common disease of group A (S. pyogenes)?
What is the most important pathogen in the alpha-hemolytic streptococci bacteria?
S. pneumoniae (causing pneumonia)
To group it all together, what are the two main bacteria of streptococci bacteria and what are the main diseases caused by them?
S. pyogenes = Strep throat
S. pneumoniae = Pneumonia
What are the two main pathogenic species of staphylococci?
what does staphylo stand for and what does it look like under a microscope?
Staphylo = grapes
Microscope = clusters
What species of bacteria is harder to eradicate: Streptococcus or staphylococcus?
Staphylococcus: because they are more robust and can withstand chemical and physical agents.
Where in the human body are staphylococcus bacteria mainly found?
As such, what do they most often cause in this area?
Disease: Pus in wounds, osteomyelitis, endocarditis
What bacteria produces coagulase, thus making it easier to diagnose?
S. aureus only
Coagulase: clots plasma
What is the most medically significant gram - cocci bacteria?
What are the two most important types of this bacteria and what does each one cause?
Gram - cocci: Neisseria
Types: Gonococcus (N. Gonorrhoeae) : Gonorrhea
Meningococcus (Neisseria meningitidis) : Meningitis and septicemia
Both contain endotoxin
The diptheroids are what type of bacteria? Where do they inhabit?
-Diphtheria caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae
-Inhabit skin and mucous membranes to cause opportunistic infections
What are the two genera of Gram-positive rods (in terms of metabolism)?
-aerobic Bacillus (B. anthracis)
-strict anaerobes (Clostridium; ex: C. difficile, C. botulinum, C. tetani, C. perfringens)
Bonus: Listeria monocytogenes
Where will you find most of the gram-negative rods?
What are a few bacteria in this group of gram - rods?
What are some gram-negative rods outside of this group?
Guts (enteric bacteria/enterobacteriaceae)
examples: E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella
Other families (not enterobacteriaceae):
Gram-neg bacteria can be divided into bacteria that do/do not metabolize what molecule? Examples?
-Lactose-metabolizer: E coli
-Can't use lactose: Salmonella and Shigella
What are a few examples of "Fastidious" and small gram - rods?
Haemophilus: penumonia and meningitis
Bordetella: Whooping cough
Bartonella: Cat scratch fever
Legionella: Legionaires disease (a type of pneumonia)
Where do you find bacteroides and what do they do?
What type bacteria are they (respiration and morphology)?
Where: gut and gingival pockets
Function: break down polysaccharides and assist with normal development
type: Strict Anaerobic gram - rods
What are two of the most important acid-fast bacteria in medicine?
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (tubercle bacillus)
M. leprae (Leprosy bacillus)
What is the staining technique called for acid-fast bacteria?
How does this staining occur?
Staining: red dye (fuschin) is mixed with either detergent or heated bacteria that removes the wax coating of the bacteria. Then it is washed with acid and a blue dye is added to stain all of the other bacteria.
Mycobacteria which cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients?
atypical acid-fast bacilli, ex: M. avium-intracellulare
Mycobacteria similar to fungi and are Gram+ and weakly acid-fast
What are their two classes (in terms of respiration)?
-Actinomyces: strict anaerobes
What are two main spirochete bacteria?
Treponema pallidum: syphilis
Borrelia burgdorferi: Lyme disease
Other: Leptospira, B. recurrentis
How do chlamydiae bacteria survive?
they live intracellularly (in phagocytic vesicles), and change form to transport to another cell
C. trachomatis - STD
C. pneumoniae - penumonia and atherosclerosis
Morphology of Rickettsiae
How is rickettsiae transmitted from one host to another?
Are rod-shaped obligate parasites
Transmitted via arthropods (insects): typhus, rocky mountain spotted fever
Exception: Coxiella burnetii (inhalation, Q fever)
Why are mycoplasma bacteria so hard to kill? What membrane component makes them unique?
they don't have a cell wall, so most antibiotics don't work on them.
-Contain sterols, which no other bacteria requires
What group is the most common spore forming group?
Mycoplasas resemble the lab-produced forms of regular bacteria, the so called ___, which lack cell walls.
Tropheryma whippelii (whipple disease) characterized by ___ and ___ but can have systemic manifestations (lymphadenopathy).
diarrhea and intestinal bleeding
Tropheryma whippelii identified by ___ and ___.
PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis
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