Aerobic gram-positive cocci, can culture.
Diseases: impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, TSS, pneumonia, scalded skin syndrome.
Who: Kids-impetigo. Anyone-folliculitis, furuncles, bone infection septic arthritis, TSS (usually women). Drug users-endocarditis. Aspiration risk (kids, disabled)-pneumonia
enterotoxin, exfoliative toxin, TSS toxin
Tx: penicillinase-resistant penicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin
Staphylococcuss aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia pestis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
acute onset cough, chills fever, blood tinged sputum, crackles, rales, tachypnea, hypoxia
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes (children only), Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli (neonates)
headache, fever, sepsis, neck pain, confusion, lethargy
aerobic gram-positive rods, identified via microscope
Diseases: Cutaneous (painless papule with lymph node involvement), GI (ulcerations of GI tract with lymphadenopathy, fever, sepsis), inhalation (fever, edema, lymph nodes, meningitis, renal failure, death)
Who: usually just animals, humans are secondary
edema toxin and lethal toxin
Tx: amoxicillin (GI/cutaneous) Ciprofloxacin or doxycycline (inhalation)
gram-negative rod, grows quickly on common media (grape-like odor)
Diseases: Pneumonia (fulminant pneumonia), skin infections, hair follicles (Hot tub), UTI, Otitis externa (swimmers ear), eye infections (contact wearers)
Who: hospitalized patients, immunocompromised, recently on broad spectrum antibiotics, intubated
Sticky binding with pili, flagella and wall lipids. Exotoxin A disrupts protein synthesis, innate and acquired antibiotic resistance. Can stimulate cytokine release and extracellular toxins to destroy tissue. Abx resistance is common.
Tx: combination antibiotics. aminoglycoside with beta-lactam abx
Anaerobic, doesn't culture well because it dies in O2. clinical signs guide diagnosis, labs confirm
Disease: food-borne (adults): blurred vision, dry mouth, abdominal pain, descending peripheral weakness with flaccid paralysis
(infant) constipation, weak cry, paralysis, respiratory arrest.
wound-similar but longer incubation period and lack of GI symp
Inhalation: rapid onset paralysis, high mortality
Who: anyone exposed
botulinum toxin blocks neurotransmission at motor nerve synapse (essentially the opposite of tetanus). Doesn't tolerate heating
Tx: PCN, metronidazole and trivalent anti-toxin
Intracellular bacteria, gram-stain is not useful, serology is useful.
Diseases: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever- 7 days after exposure, high fever, headache, malaise, myalgia, abdominal pain, macular rash that becomes petechial. Neurological, pulmonary edema, necrosis, multi-organ failure
Who: anyone who gets an infected tick. April-September usually in the South
Tx: remove ticks promptly, doxycycline
painless ulcers on soles of feet, painless swelling/lumps on face/earlobes, numb patch of skin, muscle weakness/paralysis (esp. hands/feet), stuffy nose, nosebleed, enlarged nerves below the skin, discolored patches
Then paralysis, crippling, shortening of toes/fingers, blindness, nose disfigurement
fungus histoplasma associated with bird and bat droppings. (Fungus paracoccidioides. Common in Central and South America-men who work outdoors in rurual areas)
Who: anyone if they've disturbed soil with droppings (usually farmers). Higher risk if HIV/AIDS, organ transplant, on immunosuppressants
Disease: most people never have symptoms, others have flu-like symptoms that go away on their own (fever, cough, fatigue, body aches, etc)
Presents: 3-17 days after breathing fungal spores. goes away within a few weeks or month. Not contagious
Prevention: be careful exploring caves, digging, cleaning chicken coops, remodeling/cleaning old buildings. DO NOT handle bats