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Final Exam Microbiology
Virus, Fungi, and Diseases
Terms in this set (263)
acellular, small--electron microscope only, obligate intracellular parasites
Viruses are composed of only 2 components-
viral genome and protein coat
a virus that infects and replicates inside a bacterial cell.
either DNA or RNA never both
is called a capsid
subunits that make up the capsid
genome and capsid of a virus.
The capsid (protein coat)....
gives shape or symmetry, protective covering for the genome, special capsid proteins called spikes.
Spikes are not found on all viruses...
they assist in attachment and penetration.
viruses consisting only of the nucleocapsid (genome + capsid)
have a flexible membrane called an envelope.
The envelope is composed of
lipids and proteins.
a completely assembled virus outside its host cell.
Types of viral shapes-
helical, icosahedron, and complex.
tightly wound resembling a spring
20 triangular faces and 12 corners.
the variety of species that a virus can infect. Most viruses have a narrow host range.
Most viruses have a _____ host range.
refers to the specific tissues within a host that a virus infects.
There is no ________.
Three ways we are going to classify viruses
1. what group based on the tissue they affect (pneumotropic, dermotropic, viscerotropic, neurotropic)
2. what family they belong in
3. are they DNA or RNA viruses
respiratory (viral pneumonia)
skin and subcutaneous layer
blood and visceral organs (mononucleus)
Steps in lytic cycle (death to the host cell)
is the first step in the lytic cycle. It occurs when a phage's tail fibers match with a receptor site on the bacterium's cell wall. This is not a random attachment. The collision may be random but not the attachment. There are complementary receptor sites on the bacteria's cell wall.
occurs when the phage tail releases lysozyme to dissolve a portion of the cell wall. Lysozyme is an enzyme that dissolves a portion of the cell wall. The tail sheath contracts and the tail core injects the DNA into the host cell. Like a hypodermic needle. A key point is the fact that the virus capsid stays outside only the genome goes into the host.
an enzyme that dissolves a portion of the cell wall.
A key point in penetration is that
the virus capsid stays outside only the genome goes in the host.
is the production of new phage genome and capsid parts.
is the assembly of viral parts into complete virus particles.
is the exit of virions from the bacterium. Also called the lysis stage when the cell is ruptured. The enzyme lysozyme is released again and it degrades the bacterial cell wall. Death to the host cell.
Lysogenic doesn't cause
immediate lysis of the cell. The phage DNA integrates into the bacterial chromosome as a prophage. Bacteriophages that participate in this type of reproduction are known as temperate phages. The bacteria survives the infection and continues to grow and divide normally.
A prophage is the viral nucleic acid of the
bacterial virus that is inserted into the bacterial DNA and it is passed on from one generation to the next.
Attachment of Bacteriophages-
Tail fibers attach to cell wall proteins.
Entry of Bacteriophages-
Viral DNA injected into host cell.
Uncoating of Bacteriophages-
Biosynthesis of Bacteriophages-
Attachment of Animal Viruses
attachment sites are plasma membrane proteins and glycoproteins.
Entry of Animal Viruses-
Capsid enters by endocytosis or fusion.
Uncoating of Animal Viruses-
Enzymatic removal of capsid proteins.
Biosynthesis of Animal Viruses-
In nucleus(DNA virsues) or cytoplasm(RNA viruses).
______ will not work against viruses because viruses lack the elements with which antibiotics interfere.
Antiviral drugs can be used to treat a
limited number of human viral diseases.
Antiviral drugs work to
1. affect viral penetration/uncoating
2. alter genome replication
3. alter the maturation and release phase of replication.
DNA integrates into the bacterial chromosome. (may never break apart).
Bacterial cells become stressed which trigger the prophage to
excise itself from the chromosome and initiate a lytic cycle.
Polio only affects
humans and related species.
Rabies only affects
warm blooded animals.
HIV affects the
white blood cells.
Rabies affects the
Viruses can affect almost any
Tobacco and rabies are usually _____ shaped
Herpes and polio viruses are usually _____ shaped.
Bacteriophages and small pox viruses are usally ___ shaped.
Your body automatically produces
interferons to fight off viruses. They alert adjacent cells and act as "chemical messengers".
a group of naturally produced proteins that trigger a non-specific reaction to protect us against a virus.
IFN alpha and IFN beta
do not attack the virus itself. They bind to specific receptor sites on the surface of adjacent healthy cells and triggers the healthy cells to produce antiviral proteins that attempt to inhibit viral replication.
radiating spread of cells.
clone of abnormal cells.
spreading of the cells to other tissues of the body.
A substance known to cause cancer.
Oncogenic viruses are
viruses that cause cancer.
Epstein Barr linked to
Human papilloma virus linked to
Cervical cancer/penile cancer
Hepatitis B virus-
Origin of viruses-
1. Regressive evolution hypothesis
2. Cellular origins hypothesis
3. Independent entities hypothesis.
Regressive evolution hypothesis
viruses are degenerative life forms
Cellular origins hypothesis
viruses are derived from subcellular components.
Independent entities hypothesis
viruses coevolved with cellular organisms from the self-replicating molecules believed to have existed in the primitive prebiotic earth.
a piece of protein that's infected. (Pernicious infectious particle).
A type of prion is
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.
TSE(Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies)-
brain wasting disease that causes holes in the brain. There is no cure or treatment. Incineration only and it's deadly.
What is the cause of INFLUENZA-
How is INFLUENZA transmitted
Symptoms of INFLUENZA
Nasal discharge, headache, may develop secondary pneumonia. Type A=most pandemics
Complications of INFLUENZA
Guillain-Barre syndroms(1/100,000)(nerve damage, polio like paralysis) and Reyes Syndrome (lethargy, disorientation)(young people).
Detection of INFLUENZA
Pattern spread, isolation of viruses
Treatment of INFLUENZA
Prevention of INFLUENZA
Vaccine with attenuated virus
Cause of COMMON COLD
Adenovirus in the Adenoviridae family(DNA) or Rhinoviruses(RNA) that are in the Picornaviradae
Transmission of COMMON COLD
Symptoms of COMMON COLD
Treatment of COMMON COLD
interferon nasal spray
Cause of HERPES SIMPLEX
Transmission of HERPES SIMPLEX
Symptoms of Type 1 HERPES SIMPLEX
Cold sores, conjunctivakeratitis (very contagious)
Symptoms of Type 2 HERPES SIMPLEX
genital herpes (blisters on genitals, fever, painful urination, gential soreness) [600,000 new cases each year.]
Detection of HERPES SIMPLEX
Observe Lipschultz bodies (granules in cell nuclei) [blood test]
Treatment of HERPES SIMPLEX
Prevention of HERPES SIMPLEX
avoid contact with open sores.
Cause of CHICKEN POX
Varicella-zoster virus from Herpesviridae family
Transmission of CHICKEN POX
Symptoms of CHICKEN POX
First expression-(usually as a child) Chicken pox
Second Expression-(usually as an adult) Shingles
Treatment of CHICKEN POX
Acyclovir (Zovirax), Varicela-zoster immune globulin (VZIG)
Cause of MEASLES (Rubeola)
Transmission of MEASLES (Rubeola)
Airborne (highly contagious)
Symptoms of MEASLES (Rubeola)
Koplik spots (red splotches with white centers in oral mucous membranes)
Complications of MEASLES (Rubeola)
SSPE(Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), brain disease which may occur years after recovery
Detection of MEASLES (Rubeola)
Prevention of MEASLES (Rubeola)
MMR vaccine (measles, mumps, rubella)
Cause of RUBELLA
Transmission of RUBELLA
airborne, contact with fomites
Symptoms of RUBELLA
**Most dangerous in pregnant women-can cause birth defects [congenital rubella syndrome]
Prevention of RUBELLA
Cause of MUMPS
Dermotropic (highly contagious)
Transmission of MUMPS
Airborne, contact with fomites
Symptoms of MUMPS
Enlarged parotid glands, may affect one or both glands
Complications of MUMPS
Orchitis (testes inflammation), Pancreatitis
Prevention of MUMPS
Cause of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Transmission of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Mouth to mouth, contact with fomites, saliva and/or blood
Symptoms of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Complications of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Heart defects, rupture of spleen due to filtering of toxins
Detection of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Elevated lymphocyte count, Downey cells
Treatment of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS
Cause of HEPATITIS A
Transmission of HEPATITIS A
Food or waterborne
Symptoms of HEPATITIS A
Detection of HEPATITIS A
Liver function test, antibodies in serum
Treatment of HEPATITIS A
Prevention of HEPATITIS A
Hepatitis A globulins, personal & environmental hygiene
Cause of HEPATITIS B
Transmission of HEPATITIS B
sexually transmitted, most likely method is needle sticks
Symptoms of HEPATITIS B
jaundice(always), enlarged liver
Detection of HEPATITIS B
look for HbsAg(surface antigens)
Treatment of HEPATITIS B
HBV globulin injections
Prevention of HEPATITIS B
**Nosocomial and associated with liver cancer
Cause of AIDS
Retroviridae RNA virus with DNA intermediate
Transmission of AIDS
contact with body fluids(IV users, blood transfusions, tattooing)
Symptoms of AIDS
subject to oppotunistic infections
Complications of AIDS
Kaposi's sarcoma (brown patch on skin)
Detection of AIDS
Treatment of AIDS
Prevention of AIDS
Avoid contact with body fluids, spermicides & condoms
Cause of POLIO
Neurotopic(very small virus)
Transmission of POLIO
Food or waterborne(fecal to oral route)
Symptoms of POLIO
Infected lymph tissues of GI Tract, meningitis, paralysis, bulbar polio, paralysis of diaphragm results in death
Detection of POLIO
Treatment of POLIO
Iron lung, respirator, leg braces
Prevention of POLIO
Cause of WEST NILE VIRUS
West Nile Virus from Flaviviridae
Transmission of WEST NILE VIRUS
Symptoms of WEST NILE VIRUS
fever, headache, death is rare.
Detection of WEST NILE VIRUS
Treatment of WEST NILE VIRUS
Most don't need specific care.
Prevention of WEST NILE VIRUS
Mosquito control, avoid dead birds, insect repellent
Kingdom of Fungi
Nutritional type of Fungi
Is Fungi multicellularity
All, except YEAST
Food acquisition method of Fungi
Characteristic features of Fungi
Sexual and Asexual spores
Cell type of Fungi
Cell membrane of Fungi
Cell wall of Fungi
Glucan; mannans; chitin(no peptidoglycan)
Spores of Fungi
True reproductive structures
Cell type of bacteria
cell membrane of bacteria
Cell wall of bacteria
Spores of bacteria
dormant forms of bacteria.
3 ways fungi are different from bacteria
Eukaryotic, sterols are present in cell membrane, and they have true reproductive structures as spores.
Fungi are eukaryotic but differ from plants by
1.lack of chlorophyll-photosynthesis
2.have the carbohydrate chitin in cell walls while plants have cellulose
3.not truly multicellular like plants.
4.heterotophic can not make their own food while plants are autotrophic(self feeders)
two forms.These organisms take a yeast form in the human body and a filamentous form when cultivated in the laboratory.
Dormorphic fungis are
All fungi except for yeast are made of masses of filament called
microscopic, very small strands or filaments.
A mass of hyphae is called
The mycelium is large enough to
see without a microscope
The mold you see on bread is
Two types of fungal hypha
Septae and Coenocytic
means they have many nuclei in a common cytoplasm. No crosswalls, no septae.
Heterotrophic using performed
Most fungi use
extracellular digestion to obtain their nutrients
Some fungi are decomposers which means
they live off dead or decaying organic matter.
Some fungi are pathogens which means
they can cause disease.
organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and carbon
Fungal growth is influenced by the usual thing
Oxygen, Temperature, pH
most fungi are aerobic with the exception of yeast that can grow with or without oxygen. They are facultative
most fungi grow best at room temperature except for pathogenic fungi which grow best at 37C. These pathogens again are dimorphic.
fungi grow at a pH lower than bacteria. pH of between 5 and 6. So molds can affect foods that bacteria can not affect. Sabouraud Dextrose Agar
high in sugar, low in pH.
process of forming spores on structures called fruiting bodies.
Bacterial endospores are
dormant forms of the bacteria. No reproduction
Fungi spores are
true reproductive structures. A new organism comes from these spores.
occurs at the end of specialized hyphae.
All spores of asexual reproduction are
genetically identical (clones).
these are produced in sacs or vessels called sporangiospores
produced on supportive structures called conidiophores--these are light weight and unenclosed.
form by fragmentation of the hyphae. The hyphae breaks apart and a new hyphae forms
form by the asexual process of budding. Budding is when a new cell called the blastospore develops from the parent cell.
opposite mating types come together and fuse.
Advantages of sexual reproduction include the
possible evolution of new genetic forms better adapted to the environment than the parent.
Fungi are classified based on their
mode of sexual reproduction.
If they do not have a recognized sexual cycle,
the fungi is placed in the mitosporic group.
no recognized sexual cycle.
Bread mold, molds that grow on spoiled fruit with high sugar content and on acidic vegetables
During sexual reproduction, the phylum Zygomycota produces
75% of all fungi including Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast), Penicillium, Candida
reproduce basidiospores which have basidia inside them (mushrooms)
Any fungal infection of the body is called a
Generally a mycosis
is a long lasting infection that grows slowly.
is the general name for a fungal disease of the hair, skin, or nails.
Dermatomycosis are commonly called
tineas or tinea infections
deep within the body
Not limited to any particular region
Usually caused by soil organisms
Inhalation is the route of transmission
Not contagious from human to human
Systemic mycosis are the
Occur beneath the skin from saprophytic fungi that live in soil and in vegetation.
Infection usually occurs from punctures.
generally harmless in its normal habitat but can become pathogenic in a host who is immune compromised.
Dermatophytes are fungi that colonize the hair, nails and outer layer of the epidermis.
They grow on keratin.
Informally known as tineas or ringworm
Superficial mycoses: Dermatomycoses include
tinea pedis, tinea captitis, tinea cruis.
ringworm of head
Cause of dermatomycoses
Trichophyton sp., Microsporum sp., Epidermophyton sp.,
Transmission of dermatomycoses
direct contact and/or with fomites
Detection of dermatomycoses
Grown skin scraping on SAB agar, look for hyphae and spores
Prevention of dermatomycoses
dry skin, avoid sharing body products and contact with infected persons or animals.
Cause of Tinea Versicolor (Pityriasis Versicolor)
Symptoms of Tinea Versicolor
infection covering trunk/other area, splotchy appearance of skin, uneven tanning
Treatment for Tinea Versicolor
Ketoconazle (oral+topical)-3 weeks, and selsun blue.
North America Blastomycosis
Cause of Histoplasmosis
Histoplasma capsulatum (dimorphic)
Transmission of Histoplasmosis
airborne, can be found in chicken coops, starlings, and bat droppings.
Symptoms of Histoplasmosis
similar to TB, white filmy growth in mouth, prevalent in Ohio and Mississippi river valleys
Detection of Histoplasmosis
Grow on SAB agar
Look for yeast-like cells in tissues
Treatment of Histoplasmosis
Amphotericin B, Ketoconazle
Prevention of Histoplasmosis
avoid prolonged exposure to bird or bad dropping
Cause of North American Blastomycosis
Transmission of North American Blastomycosis
airborne, dusty soil and bird dropping
Symptoms of North American Blastomycosis
similar to TB, raised wartlike lesions on face, hands, and legs
Three forms of North American Blastomycosis
disseminated-can be fatal
Detection of North American Blastomycosis
SAB-septate hyphae with chlamydospores
Treatment of North American Blastomycosis
Cause of Coccidiomycosis
Transmission of Coccidiomycosis
soil-lungs, highly infectious
Symptoms of Coccidiomycosis
respiratory problems may spread to spleen and liver
Detection of Coccidiomycosis
Treatment of Coccidiomycosis
Cause of Cyrptococcosis
Transmission of Cyrptococcosis
soil, pigeon droppings-to lungs
Symptoms of Cyrptococcosis
if stays in lungs there will be few symptoms, if spreads to blood then can get into meninges, headaches, stiff neck, paralysis, death.
Detection of Cyrptococcosis
Treatment of Cyrptococcosis
Cyrptococcosis is the
most dangerous funal infection.
Cyrptococcosis is one of the causes of
death in AIDS patients.
Cause of Sporotrichosis
Transmission of Sporotrichosis
"Rose thorn disease", baling hay
Symptoms of Sporotrichosis
pus-filled purplish lesion at entry site
Detection of Sporotrichosis
SAB-spores in clusters
Treatment for Sporotrichosis
amphotericin B, potassium iodide
Candiadiasis (yeast infection)
Cause of Candidiasis
Transmission of Candidiasis
normal flora of skin, mouth, vagina, GI tract
Symptoms of Candidiasis
Thrush-white milk-like growth oral cavity, children can get it from toys, shopping carts, etc
Perianal-associated with use of antibiotics or steroids, yogurt can help displace Candida in GI tract
Detection of Candidiasis
Treatment of Candidiasis
neuraminidase (protein) assist in release of the newly replicated virions from host cells.
Hemogglutinin (protein) facilitate attachment of influenza
Recommended textbook explanations
Fundamentals of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
Charlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
Biocalculus: Calculus for the Life Sciences
Campbell Biology (AP Edition)
Cain, Campbell, Minorsky, Reece, Urry, Wasserman
Principles of Life
David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller
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