Science - atoms and bonding
Terms in this set (36)
Are physical mental, visual, and other representation of an idea to help people understand what they cannot observe directly.
The specific amount of energy an electron has
Two or more substances- elements, compounds, or both that are in the Same place but are not chemically combined
A well tested idea that explains and connects a wide range if observations
A pure substance made of two or more elements are combined chemically in a specific ratio
Positively charged particles found in the nucleus of an atom
Modern atomic model
Included a Nucleus which contained both protons and neutrons surrounded by a cloud-like region of electrons most of the volume of an Atom is occupied by it's electrons
What discoveries did Rutherford make about the atom from his teams experiments?
He discovered that an atom is mostly empty space with electrons moving around a small positive charge Nucleus in the center of an atom.
Those electrons That have the highest energy level and are held most loosely
Elements in the same column on the periodic table; elements with the same # of valence electrons are in the same group
The force if attraction that holds two atoms together as a result if the rearrangement of electrons between them
Electron dot diagram
A representation of the valence electrons in an atom; includes the symbol for the element surrounded by dots
A 1 or 2 letter set of characters that is used to identify an element
A row of elements across the periodic table
The # of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Which element is less reactive, an element whose atoms have 7 valence electrons or an element whose atoms have 8 valence electrons? Why?
An element whose atoms have 8 valence electrons is less reactive bc it does not require any additional electrons to become stable.
What information does the organization of the periodic table tell you about atoms and the bonds they form?
Elements within the same group have the same # of valence electrons. The # of valence electrons determines the kind of bonds they form
An orderly, three dimensional pattern of ions or atoms In a solid
Tells you the ratio of the elements in the compound
Is a combination of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound
An atom or group of atoms that has become electrically charged. when an atom loses or gains electrons
An ion that is made of more than one atom
What are two basic ways in which ions form from atoms?
Atoms can lose or gain electrons
Why do ionic compounds generally have high melting points
B/c a lot of energy is required to break their strong ionic bonds
How does a ionic bond form? Bonded atoms? Yes/no? What kind?
Attraction between oppositely charged ions.
Yes;positive or negative
two atoms share two pairs of electrons
A covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
In which Their atoms share three pairs of electrons
Why are most molecular compounds poor conductors of electricity?
Because they do not have charged particles to carry a current.
How does a polar covalent bond form? Bonded atoms? Yes/no? What kind?
When unqualified sharing of electrons
Yes slightly (+) or slightly (-)
How does a non-polar covalent bond form? Bonded atoms? Yes/no? What kind?
Equal sharing of electrons. no
Able to be rolled into thin sheets, as in aluminum foil, or beaten into complex shapes - like copper
Is a material made of two or more elements that had the properties of a metal
What are five properties of metals?
Luster, ductility, malleability, heat conductivity, electric conductivity
Explain how metallic bonding causes metals to conduct electricity.
The valence electrons in metals are only loosely held by the (+) charged ion allowing them to move freely making the ions and conduct electricity
How does a metallic bond form? Charged atoms? Yes/no? What kind?
Attraction between positively card ions and surrounding electrons. (+) yes.