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Unit 2 Quizlet KVS
Terms in this set (60)
A permanent committee in Congress with a defined legislative jurisdiction
A bicameral committee composed of members of both chambers of Congress
A bicameral, bipartisan committee composed of legislators whose job is to reconcile two versions of a bill
A congressional committee created to consider specific policy issues or address a specific concern
Speaker of the House
The leader of the House of Representatives, chosen by the majority party
President of the Senate
It is automatically the vice-president. The main job is to break a tie.
president pro tempore
The chair of the Senate in the vice-president's absence. The chair is the senator of the majority party having the longest record of continuous service.
The elected leader of the party controlling the most seats in the House or Senate; is second in authority to the Speaker and in the Senate is regarded as its most powerful member; helps the Speaker schedule proposed legislation for debate on the House floor
Acts as a go-between with the leadership and the majority party members; key member who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills, and in general acts as a communications link within a party
The elected leader of the party with the second highest number of elected representatives in the House or the Senate
Acts as a go-between with the leadership and the minority party members; key member who keeps close contact with all members of his or her party and takes nose counts on key votes, prepares summaries of bills, and in general acts as a communications link within a party
A procedural move by a member of the Senate to attempt to halt passage of a bill, during which the senator can speak for an unlimited time on the Senate floor
A procedural move in which a supermajority of 60 senators agrees to end a filibuster
A procedure which allows one or more Senators to prevent a motion from reaching a vote on the Senate floor.
A senator may request unanimous consent on the floor to set aside a specified rule of procedure so as to expedite proceedings. If no Senator objects, the Senate permits the action, but if any one senator objects, the request is rejected.
One of the most committees in the House, which decides the length of debate and scope of amendments that will be allowed on a bill
Committee of the Whole
A parliamentary procedure whereby the House dissolves into a smaller body for the purposes of expediting legislation and debate. The committee can then debate and amend legislation with a quorum of only 100 Members. House Rules permit Delegates and the Resident Commissioner to participate in debate and vote in the committee as long as their vote does not directly affect the legislation. The committee dissolves itself back into the full body of the House for final votes on legislation.
A rarely used legislative procedure in the House to force a bill to the floor when stalled in committee for more than 30 days. A motion with the signatures of 218 Members is necessary to dislodge a measure from committee, making it possible for the bill to reach the floor.
The Senate must give its approval, by a 2/3 vote of the members present, before a treaty made by the president can become effective.
The authority given by the U.S. Constitution to the Senate to ratify treaties and confirm presidential cabinet, ambassadorial, and judicial appointments. That can be found in Article 2 Section 2 of the Constitution.
Spending set by the govt through appropriations bills, including operation expenses &salaries of govt employees (defense, environment, education, space exploration); federal spending on programs that are controlled through the regular budget process
Required by law to spend the money on entitlements such as Medicare, Medicaid, Social Security veterans pensions etc; expenditures required by previous commitments
Mandatory government spending like Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, Food Stamps.; benefits to which every eligible person has a legal right and that the government cannot deny. ex: social security
The appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents
An arrangement in which two or more members of Congress agree in advance to support each other's bills.
When opposing parties and interests often block each other's proposals, creating a political stalemate or inaction between the executive and legislative branches of government
Drawing of congressional districts by the state legislators to favor one political party/group over another
The redrawing of congressional district lines following the census, to accommodate population shifts and keep districts as equal as possible in population. Redistricting is done by the state legislators
Baker v. Carr (1961)
"One man, one vote." Ordered state legislative districts to be as near equal as possible in population; Warren Court's judicial activism.
Shaw v. Reno (1993)
NO racial gerrymandering; race cannot be the sole or predominant factor in redrawing legislative boundaries
One party controls the executive and the other party controls one or both houses of Congress
Voting based on party affiliation
A politician who is still in office after having lost a reelection bid
Role played by elected representatives who listen to constituents' opinions and then use their best judgment to make final decisions.
Role played by elected representatives who vote the way their constituents would want them to, regardless of their own opinions
Role played by elected representatives who act as trustees or as delegates, depending on the issue.
Formal constitutional authority of the president to reject bills passed by both houses of the legislative body thus preventing the bill from becoming law without further congressional activity.
If Congress adjourns during the ten days the president has to consider a bill passed by both houses of Congress, the bill is considered vetoed without the president's signature.
Agreement with another head of state not requiring approval form the Senate
power to persuade
A president's ability to convince congress, other political actors, and the public to cooperate with the administration's agenda
Formal orders issued by the president to direct action by the Federal bureaucracy; does not need congressional approval
A written declaration that a president may make when signing a bill into law. Usually, such statements point out sections of the law that the president deems unconstitutional.
The secretaries, or chief administrators, of the major departments of the federal government. Cabinet secretaries are appointed by the president and approved by the Senate.
The highest ranking diplomat appointed to represent the United States in a foreign country.
White House Staff
Personnel who run the White House and advise the President. Includes the Chief of Staff and Press Secretary; do not need Senate approval.
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
The president's use of his prestige and visibility to guide or enthuse the American public.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress or the president.
A decision made by a higher court such as a circuit court of appeals or the Supreme Court that is binding on all other federal courts.
In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or precedents to formulate decisions in new cases.
The philosophy that the supreme court should play an active role in shaping national policies by addressing social and political issues
Philosophy proposing that judges should interpret the Constitution to reflect what the framers intended and what its words literally say.
An alliance of various interest groups and individuals who unite in order to promote a single issue in government policy
A term used by political scientists to describe the policy-making relationship among the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups. Iron triangles are not indestructible, they face the challenge of issue networks.
One of the key inducements used by political machines. A patronage job, promotion, or contract is one of that is given for political reasons rather than for merit or competence alone.
System created by the Pendleton Civil Service Act that hired bureaucrats through a merit based personnel system
A system of public employment in which selection and promotion depend on demonstrated performance rather than political patronage.
Congresses ability to oversee, investigate and exert power over agencies in the bureaucracy
Congressional committee sessions in which members listen to witnesses who provide information and opinions on matters of interest to the committee.
power of the purse
Congressional exclusive power to authorize expenditures by all avenues of the federal government.
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