Criminology Today - Chapter 2

Aggravated Assault
A reckless attack with intent to injure seriously (as with a deadly weapon).
Malicious burning to destroy property.
Breaking and entering for the purpose of committing a crime.
Occurs if a person uses force or intimidation to steal a car from a driver.
Clearance Rate
The proportion of reported or discovered crimes within a given offense category that are solved.
A population group unified by a specific common characteristic, such as age, and subsequently treated as a statistical unit.
A statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other.
Criminal Homicide
The act of causing the death of another person without legal justification or excuse.
Criminality Index
The actual extent of the crime problem in a society.
Dark Figure of Crime
A metaphor that emphasizes the dangerous dimension of crime that is never reported to the police.
Date Rape
Sexual assualt by a known person in a dating situation. Also called acquaintance rape.
The characteristics of a population with respect to age, race, and gender.
Desistance Phenomenon
The observable decrease in crime rates that is invariably associated with age.
Felony Murder
When death of any person results from an action occurring during the commission of a felony crime.
First-Degree Murder
Premeditated murder or murder committed with extreme cruelty.
Forcible Rape
The carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will.
Hate Crime
A criminal act against a person or a person's property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias.
The unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession, or constructive possession, of another.
Latent Crime Rate
A rate of crime calculated on the basis of crimes that would likely be committed by those who are in prison or jail or who otherwise incapacitated by the justice system.
Monitoring the Future
A national self-report survey on drug use that has been conducted since 1975.
Motor Vehicle Theft
The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle (boats, airplanes, and farming equipment are excluded).
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
A survey conducted annually by the Bureau of Justice Statistics that provides data on surveyed households that report they were affected by crime.
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
A new and enhanced statistical reporting system that will collect data on each single incident and arrest within 22 crime categories.
National Youth Survey (NYS)
A longitudinal panel study of a national sample of 1,725 individuals that measured self-reports of delinquency and other types of behavior.
Negligent Homicide
Causing death through criminal negligence or recklessness.
Part I Offenses
Crimes reported annually by the FBI in its Uniform Crime Report. Part I offenses include murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft.
Part II Offenses
All crimes recorded by the FBI that do not fall into the category of Part I offenses. Include both misdemeanors and felonies.
The crime of forcing a woman to submit to sexual intercourse against her will.
Larceny by threat of violence.
Second-Degree Murder
A homicide with malice but not premeditation or deliberation, as when a desire to inflict serious bodily harm and a wanton disregard for life result in the victim's death.
Self-Report Survey
A research approach that questions large groups of subjects, typically high school students, about their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
Simple Assault
Assault where no weapon is used and which does not result in serious injury to the victim.
Spousal Rape
The rape of one spouse by the other.
Statistical School
A criminological perspective with roots in the early 1800s that seeks to uncover correlations between crime rates and other types of demographic data.
Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program
A Federal Bureau of Investigation summation of crime statistics tallied annually and consisting primarily of data on crimes reported to the police and of arrests.