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Theorists - Praxis PLT 5622/0622
Terms in this set (88)
Father of Cognitive Development - How does learning occur?
Piaget developed 4 stages of development
1 - Sensorimotor
3- Concrete Operations
4- Formal Operations
All people go through stages, but order may vary.
A stage of development that begins at birth and lasts through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around with it
In Piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
In Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
11 and up, can reason in hypothetical situations, abstract thought.
Schemes, Assimilation, Accommodation, Cognitive dissonance, and Equilibration.
Method of organization - filing system of one's knowledge of world.
Taking in information that fits an existing scheme.
Taking in information that does not fit an existing scheme. Requires one to modify scheme or create a new one.
Awareness that incoming info doesn't fit into existing schemes.
Process of trying to achieve mental balance or equilibrium by determining whether to modify scheme or create a new one, state of flux experienced until equilibrium is restored.
Robert Gagne - Conditions of learning
5 major learning categories
9 Instructional events for learning
Gain attention, Identify objective, Recall prior knowledge, Present stimulus, Guide learning, Elicit performance, Provide feedback, assess performance, and enhance retention/transfer.
Jerome Bruner - Scaffolding
Providing extra support to enable students to successfully complete a task.
Information Processing - Atkinson and Shiffrin
Attention, learning strategies, knowledge base, and metacognition.
Researched the role of social interaction in language development. Concept acquisition is fostered by working with others who have that knowledge.
Lev Vygotsky - The zone of proximal development
the gap between unactualized potential and actualized potential.
Developmental learning theories that are classified as Humanistic focus on social and personal development.
Erik Erikson - Stages of psychosocial development
Proposed there are 8 critical stages in life. Within each stage, a developmental crisis occurs. The outcome of that crisis, positive or negative, affects future development.
Stage One (0-18 mo)
trust vs mistrust - needs physical comfort, absence of fear
Stage Two (18 mo - 3 yrs)
Autonomy vs shame - Recognizes own behavior and will
Stage Three (3yr - 6 yr)
Initiative vs guilt - Learns responsibility
Stage Four (6yr -12 yr)
Industry vs Inferiority - Learns cultural skills, needs direction to industry.
Stage Five (12yr - 18)
Identify vs Role confusion - Explores roles, needs freedom to choose
Stage Six (20 - 40)
Intimacy vs Isolation - Willingly open to commit to another
Stage Seven (40 - 60)
Generativity vs stagnation - Involved with influencing future generation
Stage Eight (60+)
Integrity vs despair - Needs to resolve other stages positively, accept mortality.
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Individuals have certain needs that must be in hierarchial manner. , 1) Physiological needs: food, water, physical well-being 2)Safety needs- shelter, protection, stability 3)Social needs- love, affection, belongingness 4) Esteem needs- respect, prestige, mastery 5) Self-actualization needs- self-fulfillment, growth.
Level 1 - Preconventional Morality (4-10yr) - punishment/avoidance, exchange of favors
Level 2 - Conventional Morality (10-13yr) - Good boy/good girl, law and order.
Level 3 - Postconventional Morality (13 + yrs) - social contract, universal ethical principle
Freedom in learning - individuals should have freedom to learn, goal is self discipline, free to choose your own behavior-rather than reacting, self concept is one's belief about oneself
Suggests how we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition. Effort to account for why students are successful or not in the classroom.
Internal locus of control, external locus of control and self efficacy
He was a philosopher who believed in "learning by doing" which formed the foundation of progressive education. He believed that the teachers' goal should be "education for life and that the workbench is just as important as the blackboard."
Classroom as a minidemocracy. Founder of school of progressivism, pragmatism, service learning and inquiry learning.
School of thought that examines how external, environmental stimuli produce changes in behavior. Based on contiguity - events/items that are closely linked, refers to the simple stimulus response (S-R) pairings.
S - R Example
Lightning = Thunder
5x5 = 25
Classical Conditioning - Worked with dog using bell and bones. Studied reflex behaviors. Won nobel prize in 1904
New reactions develop in response to previously neutral stimuli.
Unconditioned stimulus - teacher blows whistle
Unconditioned response - students cover ears and stop talking
Conditioned stimulus - teacher raises hand while blowing whistle.
Conditioned response - students stop talking when teacher raises hand.
B.F. Skinner/E.L Thorndike - Operant conditioning
Law of effect - any response that is followed by a positive reinforce will increase in its frequency of occurrence. Punishment decreases frequency of behaviors, intermittent reinforcement is effective (positively or negatively)
Stimulus generalization - police wear uniforms, so all uniformed persons are helpful.
Stimulus discrimination - all people who wear uniforms are not police officers.
Shaping - process of using reinforcers to mold the behavior into the desired goal.
Extinction - Reinforcement or punishment no longer occurs as a consequence for a given behavior
Behaviorism - Albert Bandura
Modeling - When an individual makes a change in his/her behavior after observing that behavior in another. Bobo doll experiment.
6 levels in cognitive domain identified by Benjamin Bloom: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation.
Remember - Recall of data
Understand the meaning, translation, interpolation, and interpretation of instructions and problems. State a problem in one's own words.
Apply - Use a concept in a new situation or unprompted use of an abstraction. Applies what was learned in the classroom into novel situations in the workplace.
Analyze - Separates material or concepts into component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. Distinguishes between facts and inferences.
Create - Builds a structure or pattern from diverse elements. Put parts together to form a whole, with emphasis on creating a new meaning or structure.
Evaluate - Make judgments about the value of ideas or materials.
FOR learning. Informs both teachers and students, allows teacher to adjust instruction, time to intervene, and students to self evaluate
of learning. what students do or don't know, evaluate programs effectiveness, places students in correct classes
Theory of "Discovery Learning" Constructivist. Children solve problems using prior examples, reflection activities.
Progressive education - learning by doing
Father of cognitive development
Social development theory of learning
theorist who claimed individuals went through a series of stages in the process of moral development.
-Taxonomy of Education
law of effect
John B Watson
American psychologist who founded behaviorism, emphasizing the study of observable behavior and rejecting the study of mental processes
Behaviorist - Classical and operant conditioning
humanistic; Contributions: created an 8-stage theory to show how people evolve through the life span.
"Thinking about thinking" or the ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it, and then to monitor and adjust one's performance on that task
A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
Any carryover of knowledge or skills from one problem situation to another
One's belief in his or her own ability.
The ability to control one's emotions, cognitions, and behaviors by providing consequences for oneself
Zone of proximal development
In Vygotsky's theory of cognitive development, the difference between what children can accomplish on their own and what they can accomplish with the help of others who are more competent.
Two types of associative learning, A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
The process by which a person acquires, codes, stores, recalls, and decodes information about his or her spatial environment.
"combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior
the theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
A desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
The different ways people process information
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors
—The teacher directly says what they are going to do, what they are going to teach, and what they want from the students
Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn.
Learning that takes place when students work in groups to discuss and solve problems together.
An educational practice in which students of diverse abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
An educational practice in which students of similar abilities are placed within the same instructional groups.
a form of assessment designed to provide teachers with information about students' prior knowledge and misconceptions before beginning a learning activity
Summarizing a student's performance on an assessment with a single score.
Essay scoring method in which separate scores are given for specific aspects of the essay
A test designed to assess what a person has learned
Tests used to assess the skills an individual already possesses.
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn.
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