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AP Psychology Units 8 & 9
Terms in this set (61)
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
A clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
the processing of information into the memory system - for example, by extracting meaning
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences
A newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory.
Unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
The conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
The tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
The encoding of picture images
The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
The encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
long-term potentiation (LTP)
An increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
The loss of memory.
Retention independent of conscious recollection. (Also called procedural memory.)
Memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare"
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
A measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test
A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
That eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.
Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score.
general intelligence (g)
A general intelligence factor that according to Spearman and others underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.
A condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill, such as in computation or drawing
The ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance. Thus, a child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8.
the widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
intelligence quotient (IQ)
defined originally as the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100 (thus, IQ = ma/ca × 100). On contemporary intelligence tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100.
A test designed to predict a person's future performance; aptitude is the capacity to learn
A test designed to assess what a person has learned
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
The WAIS is the most widely used intelligence test; contains verbal and performance (nonverbal) subtests.
Defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group.
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
the extent to which as test yields consistent results, as assessed by the test, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to.
the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest (such as a driving test that samples driving tasks).
the behavior (such as future college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict; this, the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity
The success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict; it is assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior.
A condition of limited mental ability, indicated by an intelligence score of 70 or below and difficulty in adapting to the demands of life; varies from mild to profound.
A condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup
A self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype
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