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Seven Year's War

war fought between France and Britain, also called the French and Indian War (Britain won).


a time when humans could improve themselves; and new ideas that came through reason were published by philosophers

John Locke

believed that all people had the right of life, liberty, and property. Influenced the declaration of independence; Believed man has the right to overthrow the government.


writers of the enlightenment; believed truth came trough reason/.

Cesare Beccaria

He was against torture; believed that one was innocent until proven guilty; education prevented crime


French; Popular sovereignty- a government created by and subject to the will of the people; believed in common good over individual; believed people were born good.

Mary Wollstonecraft

Believed that education was the key to making women equal to men; called for equal education for boys and girls


"I may not agree with a word you say but i will defend to the death your right to say it"; Believe in freedom of speech, press, and religion; influenced US Bill of Rights; Displayed his ideas in the form of an adventure story

Adam Smith

believed in laisse-fair "hands off"; capitalism- economic system based on private ownership and little government interface; was the only philosopher who wrote about the economy and not the government


economic system based on private ownership and little government interface; supply and demand; if people want a good, businesses will provide it; competition provides better prices/products


"hands off"" belief that no government should interfere in economy


place where people had social gatherings and talked about enlightenment ideas

Old Regime

refers to the time of absolute monarchy

Louis XVI

Weak and inefficient kind who easily changed his mind and could be bossed around; fought and lost many wars; wanted to raise taxes for 3rd estates- but 3rd estate will protest at tennis court and write the Declaration of Man and Citizen (written by Lafayette)

Estates General

the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates, before making any changes

National Assembly

was formed by the third estate and it was the first step of the French Revolution


led the committee of public safety during the Reign of Terror (French Rev); killed many people using the guillotine

Reign of Terror

radical stage in the French Revolution in which Robespierre led the public safety and killed many people for crimes


refers to the time of Napoleon and the conservative stage int he French Revolution

Napoleonic Code

list of codes that embodied Enlightenment principles such as equality of all citizens before the law (white property owning men over age 25), civil marriage and divorce, equalized inheritance

21. Marie Antoinette

lived in great pleasure and extravagance and didn't realize the hard ships of the third estate. Daughter of Maria Theresa)

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity

the slogan of the French Revolution

Enlightened Despotism

absolute monarchs who adopted enlightenment ideas


policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver

French Revolution

war in France that overthrew King Louis XVI; Enlightenment ideas

American Revolution

When the colonies wanted to break away from England.

Causes of American Revolution

1. Enlightenment Ideas
2. Government in England did not proved representation for the colonies
3. Heavy taxation By British on Colonies (ex- tea tax, townshed acts)

Causes of French Revolution

a) Enlightenment ideas
b) American revolution
c) Rigid social class - 3 estates ( only the third estate paid taxes and the middle class wanted say in government)
d) Weak and inefficient king (Louis XIV)
e) Fought and lost wars

Political Spectrum

a) Radical- someone who wants change quickly and will use violence
b) Liberal- someone who lies change but aren't violent
c) Moderate- compromiser, will work with people
d) Conservative- someone who supports what is happening now, the status Quo. Look to the past
e) Reactionary- wants to return to the past, want to use anger

Thomas Hobbes

Believed that people were born evil; thought an absolute ruler was necessary

Effects of the French Revolution

a) Bank of France
b) Napoleonic Codes
c) Public schools
d) Meritocracy
e) Religious Toleration
f) Napoleon spread nationalism and democratic ideas throughout Europe


policy of a country building up its army; building military b/c of nationalism & imperialism; new techs improved armies; Germany disrupted the balance of powers

Triple Entente

France, Britain, Russia

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy

Schlieffen Plan

Germany attacked Russia and Belgium; idea of avoiding war on two fronts

T. E. Lawrence

British general who helped the Arabs fight the Turks in exchange for freedom after the war

League of Nations

International peace corporation; one of Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points

Zimmerman Note

note sent from Germany to Mexico urging them to attack America; U.S. intercepted note; key reason for U.S. joining WWI


Lenin's secret police

Sepoy Mutiny

1857 Indian soldiers revolt against the British;
-indians forced to serve overseas
-widows allowed to remarry
-new rifles violated religious beliefs

Cecil Rhods

explorer and imperialist for Britain; conquered land in Africa

Berlin Conference

Meeting in which Europeans divided up Africa; Europeans did not care about Africa or its inhabitants; Belgium took the Dem Rep of Congo; No representatives of Africa were present at the meeting


using any method to advance your country's interest

white man's burden

Europeans think because they were more advanced they had the duty to civilize less developed areas

social Darwinism

Europeans thought because they were stronger they had the right to take over

congress of Vienna

a peace conference that restored the old regime (rigid social structure, unequal, absolute rulers)

Conservative Restoration

a time period after Napoleon (1815) when monarchs were restored to their throne in Europe


democratic ideas; middle class wanted more rights (right to vote, freedom of speech); governments should be passed on written constitutions


pride in your country; wanting your country to be number one; freeing your country from foreign controls

Dreyfus Affair

an army officer is accused of being a traitor because he was Jewish (Antisemitism)


from Spain, European conquistadors


American born of European decent


European and Indian mix


European and African Mix


fought for woman's rights (divorce, higher education, suffrage)


the right to vote

Touissaint L'Ouverture

Independence leader of Haiti, educated and freed slave.

Otto Von Bismarck

chancellor of Prussia (second in command to the king); supported the king; realpolitik; attacked German states and began to unify Germany; used policy of blood and iron (war)


when a stronger country takes over a weaker country; benefits mother country

Boxer Rebellion

revolt against westerners and Qing Government by students and military; Qing ask westerners for help; rebellion ends resulting in little industry, women are educated, foreign influence

Meiji Restoration

Japan sets up constitution; equalizing; modernization; women given rights; western culture; results in political and economical success

Boer War

Britain vs Dutch; Brits win and take all of south Africa

Jethro Tull

inventor of the seed drill

Agricultural Revolution

new pesticides, farming methods, and enclose acts; population increase

Industrial Revolution

introduction of factory system, began in England; poor conditions; new inventions

1819 Factory Act

children under 9 could no longer work in factories; limit on hours of work for other children


led antislavery movement in parliament

Reform Bill of 1842

Women and children couldn't work in mines; relying more on man in family; no more double incomes

1834 Poor Law

improved Health and sanitation of the poor

Thomas Mathus

"Principles of Population"; population increased faster than food therefore there is always poverty

Karl Marx

communist who believed that history was defined as a class struggle- rich vs. poor; believed poor would overthrow the rich and establish classless society with equality; theory failed due to human achievement, government intervention, and the rising standard of living

Simon Bolivar

independence leader of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador; Gran Colombia- idea of a united south america, will fail due to regional differences


ending slavery

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

early woman's rights leader, abolitionist, and female activist

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