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74 terms

Global 10R midterm

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Seven Year's War
war fought between France and Britain, also called the French and Indian War (Britain won).
Enlightenment
a time when humans could improve themselves; and new ideas that came through reason were published by philosophers
John Locke
believed that all people had the right of life, liberty, and property. Influenced the declaration of independence; Believed man has the right to overthrow the government.
Philosophes
writers of the enlightenment; believed truth came trough reason/.
Cesare Beccaria
He was against torture; believed that one was innocent until proven guilty; education prevented crime
Rousseau
French; Popular sovereignty- a government created by and subject to the will of the people; believed in common good over individual; believed people were born good.
Mary Wollstonecraft
Believed that education was the key to making women equal to men; called for equal education for boys and girls
Voltaire
"I may not agree with a word you say but i will defend to the death your right to say it"; Believe in freedom of speech, press, and religion; influenced US Bill of Rights; Displayed his ideas in the form of an adventure story
Adam Smith
believed in laisse-fair "hands off"; capitalism- economic system based on private ownership and little government interface; was the only philosopher who wrote about the economy and not the government
Capitalism
economic system based on private ownership and little government interface; supply and demand; if people want a good, businesses will provide it; competition provides better prices/products
Laissez-faire
"hands off"" belief that no government should interfere in economy
Salon
place where people had social gatherings and talked about enlightenment ideas
Old Regime
refers to the time of absolute monarchy
Louis XVI
Weak and inefficient kind who easily changed his mind and could be bossed around; fought and lost many wars; wanted to raise taxes for 3rd estates- but 3rd estate will protest at tennis court and write the Declaration of Man and Citizen (written by Lafayette)
Estates General
the legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates, before making any changes
National Assembly
was formed by the third estate and it was the first step of the French Revolution
Robespierre
led the committee of public safety during the Reign of Terror (French Rev); killed many people using the guillotine
Reign of Terror
radical stage in the French Revolution in which Robespierre led the public safety and killed many people for crimes
Napoleonic
refers to the time of Napoleon and the conservative stage int he French Revolution
Napoleonic Code
list of codes that embodied Enlightenment principles such as equality of all citizens before the law (white property owning men over age 25), civil marriage and divorce, equalized inheritance
21. Marie Antoinette
lived in great pleasure and extravagance and didn't realize the hard ships of the third estate. Daughter of Maria Theresa)
Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
the slogan of the French Revolution
Enlightened Despotism
absolute monarchs who adopted enlightenment ideas
Mercantilism-
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver
French Revolution
war in France that overthrew King Louis XVI; Enlightenment ideas
American Revolution
When the colonies wanted to break away from England.
Causes of American Revolution
1. Enlightenment Ideas
2. Government in England did not proved representation for the colonies
3. Heavy taxation By British on Colonies (ex- tea tax, townshed acts)
Causes of French Revolution
a) Enlightenment ideas
b) American revolution
c) Rigid social class - 3 estates ( only the third estate paid taxes and the middle class wanted say in government)
d) Weak and inefficient king (Louis XIV)
e) Fought and lost wars
Political Spectrum
a) Radical- someone who wants change quickly and will use violence
b) Liberal- someone who lies change but aren't violent
c) Moderate- compromiser, will work with people
d) Conservative- someone who supports what is happening now, the status Quo. Look to the past
e) Reactionary- wants to return to the past, want to use anger
Thomas Hobbes
Believed that people were born evil; thought an absolute ruler was necessary
Effects of the French Revolution
a) Bank of France
b) Napoleonic Codes
c) Public schools
d) Meritocracy
e) Religious Toleration
f) Napoleon spread nationalism and democratic ideas throughout Europe
militarism
policy of a country building up its army; building military b/c of nationalism & imperialism; new techs improved armies; Germany disrupted the balance of powers
Triple Entente
France, Britain, Russia
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
Schlieffen Plan
Germany attacked Russia and Belgium; idea of avoiding war on two fronts
T. E. Lawrence
British general who helped the Arabs fight the Turks in exchange for freedom after the war
League of Nations
International peace corporation; one of Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points
Zimmerman Note
note sent from Germany to Mexico urging them to attack America; U.S. intercepted note; key reason for U.S. joining WWI
Cheka
Lenin's secret police
Sepoy Mutiny
1857 Indian soldiers revolt against the British;
-indians forced to serve overseas
-widows allowed to remarry
-new rifles violated religious beliefs
Cecil Rhods
explorer and imperialist for Britain; conquered land in Africa
Berlin Conference
Meeting in which Europeans divided up Africa; Europeans did not care about Africa or its inhabitants; Belgium took the Dem Rep of Congo; No representatives of Africa were present at the meeting
realpolitik
using any method to advance your country's interest
white man's burden
Europeans think because they were more advanced they had the duty to civilize less developed areas
social Darwinism
Europeans thought because they were stronger they had the right to take over
congress of Vienna
a peace conference that restored the old regime (rigid social structure, unequal, absolute rulers)
Conservative Restoration
a time period after Napoleon (1815) when monarchs were restored to their throne in Europe
Liberalism
democratic ideas; middle class wanted more rights (right to vote, freedom of speech); governments should be passed on written constitutions
nationalism
pride in your country; wanting your country to be number one; freeing your country from foreign controls
Dreyfus Affair
an army officer is accused of being a traitor because he was Jewish (Antisemitism)
Peninsulares
from Spain, European conquistadors
Creoles
American born of European decent
Mestizos
European and Indian mix
Mulattos
European and African Mix
Pankhurst
fought for woman's rights (divorce, higher education, suffrage)
suffrage
the right to vote
Touissaint L'Ouverture
Independence leader of Haiti, educated and freed slave.
Otto Von Bismarck
chancellor of Prussia (second in command to the king); supported the king; realpolitik; attacked German states and began to unify Germany; used policy of blood and iron (war)
Imperialism
when a stronger country takes over a weaker country; benefits mother country
Boxer Rebellion
revolt against westerners and Qing Government by students and military; Qing ask westerners for help; rebellion ends resulting in little industry, women are educated, foreign influence
Meiji Restoration
Japan sets up constitution; equalizing; modernization; women given rights; western culture; results in political and economical success
Boer War
Britain vs Dutch; Brits win and take all of south Africa
Jethro Tull
inventor of the seed drill
Agricultural Revolution
new pesticides, farming methods, and enclose acts; population increase
Industrial Revolution
introduction of factory system, began in England; poor conditions; new inventions
1819 Factory Act
children under 9 could no longer work in factories; limit on hours of work for other children
Wilburforce
led antislavery movement in parliament
Reform Bill of 1842
Women and children couldn't work in mines; relying more on man in family; no more double incomes
1834 Poor Law
improved Health and sanitation of the poor
Thomas Mathus
"Principles of Population"; population increased faster than food therefore there is always poverty
Karl Marx
communist who believed that history was defined as a class struggle- rich vs. poor; believed poor would overthrow the rich and establish classless society with equality; theory failed due to human achievement, government intervention, and the rising standard of living
Simon Bolivar
independence leader of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador; Gran Colombia- idea of a united south america, will fail due to regional differences
abolition
ending slavery
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
early woman's rights leader, abolitionist, and female activist