Ground substance ( Plasma) which is 55% of
Plasma liquid matrix
• Plasma vs.--> has clotting factors, fibrinogen,
o Proteins: coag factors, Albumin, globulin,
Enzymes (amylase, lipase, ATL, GGT...),
Hormones (T4, T, E2, P4, ACTH, ADH,
Oxytocin, LH, insulin, PTH, Growth hormone, somatostatin, cortisol, FSH, Relaxin (used to see if canines are pregnant))
o Waste: urea, creatinine, ammonia
o Electrolytes: sodium, Potassium, chloride, Phosphorus, Bicarb,
o Gases: Carbon dioxide, oxygen, Carbon monoxide
o Minerals: Magnesium, iron, zinc, copper,
o Vitamins: Fat soluble (A, D, E, K), B, C
o Carbohydrates: simple/complex/glucose
o Fats: lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL, MDL
o Inflammatory mediators: interleukin, cytokines, histamines, Prostaglandins
o Bilirubin: direct, indirect, Delta (binds to albumin)
tissue plasminogen factor
Protein C & S,
Coumarin, Warfarin, Indanedione, Dicoumarol, EDTA, Heparin given as a drug
Liver Dx, DIC, IMHA, Vit K deficiency, Aspirin, Trauma, Silica Toxicosis
haracterized by their ability to produce and secrete a neuromodulator, transmitter, or hormone. In addition, these cells contain dense core secretory granules, the storage site for the secreted product(s).
Some NETs oversecrete their normal product, and the excessive levels result in the observed signs. Other NETs are nonfunctional, and clinical signs instead result from physical forces associated with expansion and/or metastasis. Examples are: Insulinoma, Gastrinoma, Glucagonoma and Carcinoids of the GI, Lungs, Liver and Heart.
• Tumor releases PTHrp that stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption and renal tubular resorption of calcium and subsequent hypercalcemia.
The most common involved neoplasia are anal sac apocrine gland adenocarcinoma, lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
Other less commonly involved tumors are thyroid carcinoma, bone tumors, thymoma, squamous cell carcinoma, mammary gland carcinoma/adenocarcinoma, melanoma, primary lung tumors, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, parathyroid gland tumors, nasal carcinoma and ovarian stromal tumor.
• Glomerulus: creatinine (GFR) and inulin
o Urinalysis (UA): UA sediment (casts), Urine specific gravity, Protein/creatinine ration
• Gross (clarity and color), specific gravity [from refractometer because dipstick is for humans and not for animals], sediment [RBC, WBC], infectious agents [bacteria, yeast, fungi, parasites], crystals, casts , chemistry [dipstick, bilirubin, protein, glucose, ketones]