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Practice Test Q's 1
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Terms in this set (102)
True or False:
In a switched stack, the Master is the only switch with full access to the interconnect bandwidth
All switches in a stack have full access to the interconnect bandwidth.
How many switches can be in a stack?
What are the five port roles of RSTP?
Will a mismatched VTP version prevent switches from exchanging VTP information?
All switches in a VTP domain must have the same domain name, but they do not need to run the same VTP version.
Do not enable VTP version 2 on a switch unless all of the switches in the same VTP domain are version-2-capable. When you enable version 2 on a switch, all of the version-2-capable switches in the domain enable version 2. If there is a version 1-only switch, it does not exchange VTP information with switches that have version 2 enabled.
OSPF will perform an election for DR and BDR routers in what kinds of networks?
...on every multi-access network segment. This is where more than two hosts can reach each other directly; ie, Ethernet segment (broadcast multi-access) or Frame Relay (Non-broadcast multi-access, NBMA)
What OSPF command will allow you to view the OSPF routing processes?
show ip ospf
What two routing protocols perform network auto-summary by default?
RIPv2 and EIGRP
What's the AD for...
EIGRP summary routes
external EIGRP routes
Exterior Gateway Protocol routes
EIGRP summary: 5
external EIGRP: 170
Exterior Gateway Protocol: 140
Name 3 techniques used by distance vector protocols to stop routing loops in a network
What command will show you VTP statistics information?
show vtp counters
What algorithm does EIGRP use to determine the best path?
EIGRP uses DUAL (Diffusing Update Algorithm)
RIP uses Bellman-Ford
What are five values that are communicated via EIGRP via route updates, and which are used to compute routes by default?
* only these are used in route computations by default
There are four packet types used by EIGRP. What are they, and what protocol is used to transport them?
Update, Query, Reply all use RTP, Reliable Transport Protocol
Acknowledgement packets are not sent via RTP, and are not reliable
What does EIGRP use for loop-prevention?
Can EIGRP differentiate between internal and external routes?
What command will set the line speed of a serial connection that connects to a CSU/DSU @ 56K?
service-module 56k clock rate speed
this command works for a four-wire 56/64 K CSU/DSU
IPSec defines two protocols. What are they and what's the difference between them?
Authentication Header (AH) does not perform data encryption, but does provide data integrity and authentication
Encapsulation Security Payload (ESP) can provide integrity and authentication, but its primary purpose is to encrypt the data crossing the tunnel via AES, DES or 3DES
Describe ATM networks
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks are used for the transmission of voice, video, and data traffic using fixed, 53-byte frames called cells (5bytes for header info, 48 bytes for data). The WAN technology used by ATM networks is known as 'cell-switching'.
What is the BRI connector on a router used for?
This is for an Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) connection. Uses RJ-45 / RJ-48 connections.
ISDN basic rate provides 128 bits of bandwidth via a D channel for signaling and two B channels for data. ISDN uses circuit-switching where a dedicated virtual circuit is established between caller and receiver.
What are synchronous serial ports?
These can be used to provide leased-line or dial-up communication, and can be used to configure E1 or T1 lines.
With the help of these lines, dialers can be configured.
...what's the command to set the clock rate?
clock rate ###
What's the problem with HDLC when connecting to a non-Cisco router?
HDLC contains a 'type' field, some parameters of which may be incompatible with non-Cisco devices.
Non-Cisco devices can use HDLC, but it's not their default.
What is UDP jitter operation? The UDP jitter operation for VOIP?
UDP jitter operation is a method of measuring delay, delay variance, and packet loss in IP networks using UDP traffic.
...an extension of the existing jitter operation with enhancements just for VOIP; used to calculate call quality
What is ICMP Echo operation? ICMP path operation?
used to measure end-to-end response time between a router and an endpoint device.
used to measure response time between each hop in the path.
What is the default HSRP priority? How can you tell if preemption is active on an HSRP router?
Look for the 'P' next to the priority in the
show standby brief
What is an appropriate Cisco controller for the datacenter environment?
Name five benefits of Cisco's APIC-EM
What command will produce a summarized output of all the interfaces configured on a device?
show interfaces summary
What's the difference between greenfield and brownfield implementations? Which does Cisco APIC-EM support?
Greenfield: uses no previous code and design
Brownfield: incorporates existing code and design
APIC-EM can do both
Does version 2c of SNMP support authentication and encryption?
No. Only version 3 does this.
What does the verify-data command during IP-SLA configuration do?
This makes each operation response be checked for corruption
When a router receives a ping packet and it directs the user to another router for better routing, what type of response does the host receive?
ICMP redirect message
When a router sends a packet but does not receive a response within an allotted time, what kind of response does it send the original host?
When a router receives a ping packet and doesn't have a route to the destination in its routing table, what kind of message does it send the original host? How many different kinds are there?
...Fragmentaion is needed and the Do-not-Fragment bit is set (DF)
...Source Route Failed
What command will show you a summary of the HSRP groups of which the router is a member?
What are the six states in which HSRP routers can exist?
When 802.1x is initially configured, what is the default port control? What does it do?
the default port control is force-authorized which forces the port into an authorized state and permits all traffic without authentication
Device(config-if)# access-session port-control auto
What does this do?
Enables IEEE 802.1X authentication and causes the port to begin in the unauthorized state, allowing only EAPOL frames to be sent and received through the port.
The authentication process begins when the link state of the port changes from down to up or when an EAPOL-start frame is received. The Device requests the identity of the supplicant and begins relaying authentication messages between the supplicant and the authentication server.
Each supplicant attempting to access the network is uniquely identified by the Device by using the supplicant MAC address.
Describe the 802.1Q header
It is 4 bytes in size, and inserted between the Source Address and Type fields in an Ethernet header. The fields in an 802.1Q header:
VLAN ID (12 bits, supports 4096 VLANs, but really only 4094 in practice)
What determines how often a nonroot bridge or switch sends an 802.1D STP Hello BPDU message?
The Hello timer as configured on a root switch
What is STA?
Spanning Tree Algorithm, which is how STP chooses which interfaces should be placed into a forwarding state
What are the default IEE port costs for STP? The newer, non-standard port costs?
What's the command to switch to the newer version?
Change to the newer, non-standard costs via spanning-tree pathcost method long
Compare port states between STP and RSTP
Describe the various port roles of RSTP
Describe the STP BID and System ID extension
The priority field (2 bytes) is divided into two fields = Priority (multiple of 4096), 4 bits ... Sytem ID Extension (holds VLAN ID), 12 bits
System ID = MAC Address, 6 bytes
An engineer compares the output of the show vtp status command on two neighboring switches. One switch, SW1, acts as VTP server, while the other, SW2, acts as a VTP client. What are two ways to tell that the switches have synchronized?
Both list the same "last updater" IP address and timestamp
Both list the same configuration revision number
Where is switch stacking typically used? Chassis aggregation?
Stacking = access layer, requires stacking cables
Chassis Aggregation = Core/Distribution Layer, doesn't require special hardware adapters, uses Ethernet
Compare the IGPs to one another
How often does OSPF flood LSAs?
Whenever something changes, or based on each LSA's separate timer (the default is 30 mins)
Where does the OSPF Hello sit in the IP header? What is its protocol type? To what address does it go?
The Hello follows the IP packet header; it has a protocol type of 89, and it goes to 22.214.171.124
What's the formula for the OSPF cost algorithm? What's the standard (default) for each kind of interface?
Reference Bandwidth <divided by> Interface Bandwidth
100,000 kilobytes / interface bandwidth
Standards for serial: 64
Fast Ethernet: 1
How do you change the OSPF default reference bandwidth? What's a good number to change it to?
OSPF subcommand auto-cost reference-bandwidth with a value of Mbps. Since your fastest link will likely be 10Gbps, make this 10000
What is EIGRP feasible distance (FD)?
A route's feasible distance is the calculated metric of the successor route
What is a distance vector loop prevention mechanism that lets other routers know a route has failed?
What is an infinite metric for RIP? OSPF? EIGRP?
EIGRP: 2-to-the-32nd (-) 1
OSPF: 2-to-th-24th (-) 1
What protocol does EIGRP use to send update messages?
RTP, Reliable Transport Protocol which provides a mechanism to resend any messages that aren't received by a neighbor
How does a router determine whether a route is a feasible successor?
If a non-successor route's RD is less than the FD of the successor, the route is a feasible successor.
When EIGRP uses DUAL, what messages are exchanged?
The router seeking a new route will send query messages, and a router with an alternate route will send a reply message
What EIGRP routes in the topology table are effected by the variance x command?
What is the default EIGRP maximum-paths setting?
The only routes that qualify for unequal cost load balancing via the variance command are FS routes
The default number of max paths is 4
Which of the following internet edge designs include connections to two ISPs?
a. single homed
b. single multihomed
c. dual homed
d. dual multihomed
think of the ISP as being "home"
An enterprise uses a Metro Ethernet WAN with an E-LAN service, with the headquarters plus ten remote sites connected to the service. The enterprise uses EIGRP at all sites, with one router connected to the router from each site. How many subnets are used? How many neighbors does a remote site have?
The WAN uses one IP subnet
A remote site would have ten EIGRP neighbors
An enterprise uses an MPLS Layer 3 VPN service, with the headquarters plus ten remote sites connected to the service. The enterprise uses EIGRP at all sites, with one PE router connected to the CE router from each site. How many subnets are used? How many neighbors does a remote site have?
The WAN uses ten or more IP subnets
The remote sites would have one EIGRP neighbor
On which interface is the private address configured when GRE tunneling over an unsecure, public network? The public address?
The private IP address should be configured on the tunnel interface, and the public IP address on the physical interface
You issue a show pppoe command and receive no output. Where does the configuration problem most likely lay?
the physical ethernet interface. Even if you create a dialer interface, there will be no output in the show pppoe session until the layer 1 commands (dialer-pool # on the dialer interface, and pppoe-client dial-pool-number # on the physical interface) are configured to tie the physical and dialer interfaces together.
The current bit rate of traffic exceeds the respective policing and shaping rate. What will the policer do? The shaper?
The policer may discard packets, or may change their QoS markings and allow them through, perhaps for later, more aggressive discards
The shaper will definitely queue the packets to slow them down
Compare the configuration commands between Layer 2 Etherchannel and Layer 3 Etherchannel.
Layer 2: (physical interface subcommands):
channel-group 1 mode [on | auto | desirable | active | passive]
Layer 3: (physical interface subcommands):
no ip address
channel-group 1 mode [on | auto | desirable | active | passive]
(create a port-channel interface):
ip address x.x.x.x x.x.x.x
Router R1 has a router-on-a-stick (ROAS) configuration with two subinterfaces of interface G0/1: G0/1.1 and G0/1.2. Physical interface G0/1 is currently in a down/down state. The network engineer then configures a shutdown command when in interface configuration mode for G0/1.1, and a no shutdown command when in interface configuration mode for G0/1.2. What will be the interface states for the subinterfaces?
G0/1.1 will be admin down
G0/1.2 will be down/down
An engineer wants to set the OSPFv3 router ID for Router R1. Which of the following answers could affect R1's choice of OSPFv3 router ID?
a. The ipv6 address command on interface Gigabit0/0
b. The ip address command on interface Serial0/0/1
c. The ospf router-id command in OSPFv3 configuration mode
d. The ipv6 address command on interface loopback2
If no router-id command is set, and no loopback interface has an IPv4 address, the router will choose the highest IPv4 address from among all working non-loopbacks)
What are the neighbor requirements for OSPFv3?
interfaces must be up/up;
authentication must match;
timers must match;
RIDs must be unique;
neighbors DON'T have to be in the same IPv6 subnet;
neighbors won't exchange LSDBs if there's an MTU mismatch
Router R1 has been configured as a dual-stack IPv4/IPv6 router, using interfaces S0/0/0, S0/0/1, and GigabitEthernet0/1. As a new engineer hired at the company, you do not know whether any of the interfaces are passive. What command lets you find whether G0/1 is passive, either by the command listing that fact or by that command leaving passive interfaces out of its list of interfaces?
show ipv6 ospf int g0/1
How do you explicitly configure the RID for OSPFv2 and OSPFv3? For EIGRP and EIGRPv6?
Both OSPF versions: router-id router subcommand
Both EIGRP versions: eigrp router-id router subcommand
Compare the various cloud computing options in terms of security, QoS, ease of migration, and speed of implementation.
Both OSPF and EIGRP processes can be temporality disabled using the ____ command while in ______ configuration mode.
Both OSPF and EIGRP processes can be temporality disabled using the shutdown command while in OSPF/EIGRP router configuration mode.
Which Cisco IOS command is used to advertise a default route into an OSPF domain regardless of whether a default static route is configured?
The default-information originate command is used to broadcast a default route throughout the OSPF domain, but for it to work correctly, a default state route must exist on the initially configured router to a reachable destination. To eliminate this requirement, add the always parameter to the end of the command.
Which Cisco IOS command is used to display which interface an IPv6 ACL is applied to and in which direction?
The show ipv6 interface [interface] command is used to display which interface an IPv6 ACL is applied to and in which direction.
There are four different types of ACL. What are they, and what ACL numbers do they cover?
Standard numbered, extended numbered, standard named, and extended named.
The standard numbered ACLs use the range 1-99 and 1300-1999.
The extended numbered ACLs use the range 100-199 and 2000-2699.
How many equal cost routes are load-balanced by default in EIGRP?
What command will display any configured IPv6 access lists as well as the number of ACL statement matches?
show ipv6 access-list
What is the syntax to configure SPAN on a switch? Use transmissions received on interface fa0/1 as the source, and set the destination to fa0/2. The session # is 1.
monitor session 1 source interface fa0/1 rx
monitor session 1 destination interface fa0/2
You issue a show ppoe session command, and the output is blank. At what layer did you most likely make a configuration error?
If the output of the show pppoe session command does not show any output or does not list both the physical and dialer interfaces, then there is likely a Layer 1 configuration problem.
Look at your physical interface config.
What is the maximum number of VLANs supported by 802.1Q?
The maximum number of VLANs that can be addressed using the 802.1Q tag is 4096, two of which are considered reserved (0 and 4095), for a total of 4094.
This can be confusing because many lower-level Cisco switches only support up to VLAN 1005 (the "standard" range), while upper-level switches (and most of the current lower-level models) support the complete range from 1 to 4094 (which includes the "standard" and "extended" ranges).
What are the most commonly deployed virtualization products on the market?
Four of the most commonly deployed virtualization products include Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware vCenter, Citrix XenServer, and Red Hat Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM).
What are the two headers used by GRE, and how big are they?
There are two different headers that are added when using a typical IPv4 tunnel: an IPv4 delivery header (20 bytes) and a 4-byte GRE header, for a total of 24 added bytes.
What is UCS?
A few years ago Cisco got into the server hardware market with its Unified Computing System (UCS) that offers a number of different server configuration options that are intended to compete directly with existing server hardware providers.
Do show int commands show ip address information?
What's the difference between standard and named ACL configuration commands?
Standard: access-list 100 permit x.x.x.x x.x.x.x x.x.x.x x.x.x.x
Named: ip access-list extended/standard NAME
On a 2960 switch, what global command has to be issued before the ip routing command in order to enable L3 capabilities?
sdm prefer lanbase-routing
When the OSPF default-information originate command gets issued on a router two hops away, what default route will be shown on the end-most router?
It will show a default route pointing to its next hop, not the route exactly as entered on the original router
What is a UNI? NNI?
In telecommunications, a User Network Interface (UNI) is a demarcation point between the responsibility of the service provider and the responsibility of the subscriber. This is distinct from a Network to Network Interface (NNI) that defines a similar interface between provider networks.
This is typically seen on Metro Ethernet setups
Name one difference and some similarities in IPv4 and IPv6 DHCP configs
A major difference between the IPv6 and IPv4 stateful DHCP servers is the fact that the IPv6 stateful DHCP does not provide default gateway information. This is provided through the Neighbor Discovery Process built in to the protocol. The IPv6 stateful DHCP implementation can and will provide subnet mask information, lease duration information, and DNS information as required.
Do the dialer interface number and the dialer pool number configured with the dialer pool and ppoe-client dial-pool-number commands need to match?
The dialer interface number and the dialer pool number configured with the dialer pool and ppoe-client dial-pool-number commands don't need to match.
When configuring OSPF with an MPLS VPN WAN, in what area must the CE-PE link reside?
OSPF design allows for that link to be in backbone area 0, or not, through the use of the OSPF super backbone, which exists between all the PE routers.
What type of queuing can lead to queue starvation?
LLQ, especially during times of high network utilization
Which Cisco IOS command can be used to display the status of the PPPoE state? What does the output show?
The show pppoe session command can be used to display the status of the PPPoE state, including the local and remote MAC addresses, the bound virtual interface, and the state.
What would cause the following error:
R2# *May 5 03:51:08.259: %OSPFv3-5-ADJCHG: Process 10, IPv6, Nbr 192.168.100.1 on GigabitEthernet0/1 from EXSTART to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Too many retransmissions
May 5 03:51:17.187: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 10, Nbr 172.16.1.193 on GigabitEthernet0/1 from EXSTART to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Too many retransmissions
May 5 03:51:18.169: %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process 10, Nbr 172.16.1.2 on GigabitEthernet0/1 from EXSTART to DOWN, Neighbor Down: Too many retransmissions
A common error that is seen when there is an MTU mismatch on an interface is the interface attempting to establish a neighborship and getting into the EXSTART state, then failing with this error message; this will continue to repeat until the issue is resolved.
What is the default OSPF Hello and Dead timer?
Hello = 10
Dead = 40
What's the difference between Cisco Open SDN, APIC, and APIC-EM?
The Cisco Open SDN Controller uses an Open SDN model with an OpenFlow Southbound Interface as defined by the Open Networking Foundation (ONF). The ONF SDN model centralizes most control plane functions.
The APIC model for data centers partially centralizes control plane functions.
The APIC-EM controller (as of time of publication) makes no changes to the control plane of routers and switches, leaving those to run with a completely distributed control plane.
What are the three different types of APIC-EM ACL Analysis error types?
There are three different ACL error types that are found with the APIC-EM ACL Analysis tool:
Redundant rule, Shadowed rule, and Correlation rule.
ACL statements will be highlighted as redundant when the first of two rules is unnecessary and its removal wouldn't affect the end result of the ACL.
ACL statements will be highlighted as shadowed when the second of two rules would never be matches because the first would match all traffic first.
ACL statements will be highlighted as correlated when some packets would match the first or second entries but some would also match both.
What is Cisco CEF?
Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) was developed as a Cisco IOS feature to improve and optimize the IP route lookup performance. It does this through the creation of two additional lookup tables: the forwarding information base (FIB) and the adjacency table.
Describe the relationship between the following terms:
MIB, agent, trap
The Management Information Base is the database of variables on a network device that can be used for Simple Network Management Protocol. An SNMP management station is used to poll the SNMP agent on the device. This agent reads or writes to the variables stored in the MIB. An SNMP trap is an unsolicited message sent by the SNMP agent to indicate a variable's value from the MIB.
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