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Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following methods were used as data collection sources in Traina's study? Self-reports?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following methods were used as data collection sources in Traina's study? Observation?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following methods were used as data collection sources in Traina's study? Biophysiologic measures?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following methods were used as data collection sources in Traina's study? Records?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

For which variables did Traine derive quantitative information?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following specific methods were used? Composite scale?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Which of the following specific methods were used? Visual analog scale?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were there any closed-ended questions?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were there any open-ended questions?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were any data collected by means of: A telephone interview?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were any data collected by means of: An internet questionnaire?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were any data collected by means of: A personal (face-to-face) interview?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were any data collected by means of: A self-administered questionnaire?
Traina conducted a study to investigate the relationship between adults' blood pressure and their suppression of anger. Data were gathered from a sample of 347 healthy men and women aged 25 to 60 years who were members of a fitness center in Washington, DC. Participants completed two scales: The Feeling of Anger Scale (FAS) and the Expression of Anger Scale (EAS). In the FAS, participants were asked to rate the frequency and intensity of anger they felt in various circumstances, on 9-point rating scaled. Responses to 10 items were summed to yield a total score for felt anger. The EAS asked them to rate the frequency and intensity of expressing or showing their anger in the same circumstances on similar 0-point scaled. The summed EAS score was subtracted from the FAS score to yield an estimate of suppressed anger (i.e., anger felt but not demonstrated). The subjects' blood pressure (BP) was measured by nurses using an automated blood pressure cuff. Subjects had not engaged in vigorous exercise for at lease 1 hour before measurement, which was made in the right arm while subjects were seated. Second blood pressure measurements were made after 10 more minutes of rest, and the two measurements of diastolic and systolic BP were averaged. Train also gathered data on the subjects' height and weight. Weight was measured with subjects wearing only gym shorts and a tee shirt, to the nearest 10th of a pound. Heights were measured without shoes, feet together. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight in kilograms / height in meters. 2 participants also completed a brief questionnaire that asked about demographic characteristics and exercise patterns, using multiple choice questions. All instruments were assessed as being below the 8th grade reading level. The results indicated that, for both men and women, higher diastolic and systolic BP was associated with higher levels of suppressed anger, even when age, BMI, and exercise intensity were statistically controlled.

Were there in vivo or in vitro measures?