Campell Biology Unit 3 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (23)
a specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and involved in chemical reactions
"water loving"; pertaining to polar or charged molecules (or parts of molecules) that are soluble to water.
"water-fearing"; pertaining to nonpolar molecules (or parts of molecules) that do not dissolve in water
a large molecule consisting of many identical or similar monomers linked together by covalent bonds
the subunit that serves as a building block of polymer
a chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
a chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; process by which polymers are broken down and an essential part of digestion
member of class of biological molecules consisting of single-monomer sugars
the simplest carbohydrate; a simple sugar with a molecular formula that is generally some multiple of CH2O
a sugar molecule consisting of monosaccharides linked by a dehydration reaction
a carbohydrate polymer of many monosaccharides (sugars) linked by dehydration reactions.
a storage polysaccharide in plants; a polymer of glucose
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in liver and muscle cells; the animal equivalent of starch.
a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls composed of glucose monomers. Cellulose molecules are linked into cable like fibrils
a functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure
an organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins
a macromolecule, usually a protein, that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction
an organic compound consisting mainly of carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by non-polar covalent bonds, making compound mostly hydrophobic.
a lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group, giving the molecule two non-polar hydrophobic tails and a polar hydrophilic head. form bilayers that function as biological membranes
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular structures and activities. The two types of these are DNA and RNA
a type of nucleic acid consisting of nucleotide monomers with a ribose sugar and the nitrogenous bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U); usually single stranded; functions in protein synthesis, gene regulation, and as the genome of some viruses
a type of lipid whose carbon skeleton is in the form of four fused rings with various chemical groups attached. Examples are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen
a building block of nucleic acids, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups
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