Chapter 7 objectives
Terms in this set (4)
Explain the terms: anabolic and catabolic pathways regarding metabolism
Anabolic pathways build complex molecules from simpler ones and typically need an input of energy. These are endothermic and an example is proteins from acids.
Catabolic pathways involve the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones and typically release energy. It commonly involves oxidative reactions, producing reducing equivalents. These are exothermic and an example is the respiratory chain and ATP.
Explain the terms: monosaccharide, disaccharide, oligosaccharide, polysaccharide
Monosaccharide - simplest carbohydrate; cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler form; classified based on # carbons and whether it has aldehyde or ketone group
Disaccharide - condensation of two monosaccharides; glycosidic bond (often C1-C4 of two monomers)
Ex: lactose, maltose, sucrose
Oligosaccharide - condensation of 3-10 monosaccharides; most are not digested by human enzymes
Polysaccharide - condensation products >10 monosaccharides; may be linear or branched; e.g., starches and dextrins
Explain different ways the structures of glucose and other monosaccharides can be represented
1) They can be enantiomers which are structures with mirror images. The monnosaccharides can be in D or L form, based on spatial relationship to parent 3-C compound glyceraldehyde; and whether -OH on terminal carbon (C5 of glucose) is on right (D-isomer) or the left (L-isomer). Most sugars in humans are in D-isomer form.
Describe various types of isomerism of sugars; and, pyranose and furanose ring structures
A special type of isomerism is found in the pairs of structures that are
mirror images of each other. These mirror images are called enantiomers,
and the two members of the pair are designated as a D- and an L-sugar. The vast majority of the sugars in humans are D-isomers. In the D form, the -OH group on the asymmetric carbon farthest from the carbonyl carbon is on the right, whereas in the L-isomer, it is on the left.
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