PSYCH-011 UNIT 3 REVIEW
Terms in this set (80)
What is stress?
the interpretation of specific events (stressors) as threatening or challenging; the physical and psychological reaction to stress, known as the stress response
What is a stressor?
a trigger or stimulus that induces stress
What is eustress?
pleasant, desirable stress that arouses us to persevere and accomplish challenging goals
What is distress?
unpleasant, undesirable stress caused by aversive conditions
What is acute stress?
a short-term state of arousal in response to a perceived threat or challenge that has a definite endpoint
What is chronic stress?
a continuous state of arousal in which demands are perceived as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them
What are the seven major sources of stress?
Life changes, chronic stressors, job stressors, hassles, frustration, conflict, and cataclysmic events
What are chronic stressors?
state of ongoing arousal in which the parasympathetic system cannot activate the relaxation response
What are job stressors?
work-related stress, including unemployment, role conflict, and burnout
What are hassles?
small problems of daily living that accumulate and sometimes become a major source of stress
What is frustration?
unpleasant tension, anxiety, and heightened sympathetic activity resulting from a blocked goal
What is conflict?
forced choice between two or more different and incompatible demands
What are cataclysmic events?
stressful occurrences that occur suddenly and generally affect many people simultaneously
What is acculturative stress?
the stress resulting from the many changes and pressures of adapting to a new culture; also known as "culture shock"
What are the four problems with acculturative stress?
Integration, Assimilation, Separation, Marginalization
What is an alarm?
What is resistance?
What is exhaustion?
diseases of operation
What is the SAM system?
the sympathetic nervous system stimulates the adrenal medulla, which releases norepinephrine and epinephrine
What are the hormones released by the SAM system?
Norepinephrine and epinephrine
What are the hormone released at the end of the HPA axis?
Glucocorticoids and cortisol
Describe the role of stress in cancer.
Cancer is caused by the interaction of environment and genetic predispositions.
Discuss how the development of cardiovascular disorders is affected by stress.
Stress does contribute to heart disease.
Fat is released as fuel in response to stress. If not used for fight-or-flight, it adheres to the walls of arteries, forming blockages
What is emotion-focused coping?
the strategies we use to relieve or regulate the emotional impact of a stressful situation
What is problem-focused coping?
the strategies we use to deal directly with a stressor to eventually decrease or eliminate it
What is internal locus of control?
the belief that we control our own fate
What is external locus of control?
the belief that chance or outside forces beyond our control determine our fate
What is motivation?
set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward some goal
What is emotion?
a complex pattern of feelings that includes arousal, cognitions, and expressive behaviors
What is the instinct (biological) theory?
motivation results from innate biological instincts, which are unlearned responses found in almost all members of species
What is the drive reduction (biological) theory?
motivation begins with a biological need (a lack or deficiency) that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need and restore homeostasis
What is the optimal arousal (biological) theory?
organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal
What is the incentive (psychological) theory?
motivation results from external stimuli that "pull" the organism in certain directions
What is the cognitive (psychological) theory?
motivation is affected by expectations and attributions, or how we interpret or think about our own or others' actions
What is Maslow's hierarchy of needs (biopsychosocial)?
lower needs like hunger and safety must be satisfied before advancing to higher needs (such as belonging and self-actualization)
Which theory includes homeostasis?
Drive reduction (biological) theory
What is intrinsic motivation?
motivation for a task or activity based on internal incentives, such as enjoyment or personal satisfaction
What is extrinsic motivation?
motivation for a task or activity based on external rewards or threats of punishment
What are the three key components of emotion?
Biological, Cognitive, Behavioral
Identify the components of the brain that are involved in emotion
brain, cortex, limbic system, amygdala, autonomic nervous system, sympathetic division, parasympathetic division
Explain the components of the nervous system that are involved in emotion.
autonomic nervous system, sympathetic division, parasympathetic division
What is Type A personality?
behavior characteristics including intense ambition, competition, exaggerated time urgency, and a cynical, hostile outlook
What is Type B personality?
behavior characteristics consistent with a calm, patient, relaxed attitude
What are considered culturally universal emotions?
disgust, sadness, happiness, fear, anger, surprise
What is social psychology?
the study of how others influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions
What is attribution?
explanations about the causes of behaviors or events
What are the two mistaken attributions?
Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) & Self-serving bias
What is Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE)?
attributing people's behavior to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) factors; related to the actor-observer bias
What is self-serving bias?
taking credit for our successes and blaming our failures on external causes
What is saliency bias?
focusing on the most noticeable (salient) factors when explaining the causes of behavior
What is actor observer effect/situational (external) attribution?
attributing others' behaviors to personality factors but our own to situational details
What is observer--dispositional (internal) attributions?
focuses on the personal disposition of the actor
What is individualistic culture?
people are defined and understood as individual selves, largely responsible for their own successes and failures
What is attitude?
learned predisposition to respond positively or negatively to a particular object, person, or event
What is affective (emotional) element?
measured by physiological techniques (heart rate, respiration)
What is behavioral (action) element?
Measured by self-reported or directly observed behavioral changes
What is cognitive (thinking) element?
Measured by self-report techniques (surveys and questionnaires)
What is prejudice?
a learned, unjustified negative attitude toward members of a group
What does cognitive stereotypes refer to?
a set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group that is generalized to all group members; the cognitive component of prejudice
What are the major sources of prejudice and discrimination?
learning, personal experience, limited resources, displaced aggression, and mental shortcuts
What are the five strategies to overcome prejudice?
Cooperation & common goals, intergroup contact, cognitive retraining, cognitive dissonance, and empathy induction
What is cooperation & common goals?
encourage cooperation and not competition
What is intergroup contact?
close interaction, interdependence, equal status
What is cognitive retraining?
perspective talking, focus on similarities
What is cognitive dissonance?
examples that don't conform prejudiced views
What is empathy induction?
hidden, automatic attitude beneath awareness
What is conformity?
changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
What is normative social influence?
conforming to group pressure out of a need of approval and acceptance
What is informational social influence?
conforming because of a need for information and direction
What is a reference group?
people we conform to because we like and admire them and want to be like them
What is obedience?
following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
What are the four factors of obedience?
Legitimacy and closeness of the authority figure, remoteness of the victim, assignment of responsibility, and modeling or imitating others
What is deindividualization?
reduced self-consciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous
What is altruism?
actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper
What is bystander effect?
individuals are less likely to offer help to a victim when other people are present; "someone else will help them out"
What is diffusion of responsibility?
dilution of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group members
What is evolutionary?
favors survival of one's genes
What is egoistic?
motivated by anticipated gain
What is empathy-altruism?
due to empathy for someone in need
What are the three models for helping behavior?
evolutionary, egoistic, and empathy-altruism