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42 terms

Chapter 8- The Cellular Basis of Reproduction and Inheritance

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genome
the complete genetic material contained in an individual
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself to form 2 identical daughter cells
sexual reproduction
process by which chromosomes from two parents go into the genes of the daughter cells
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
binary fission
the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells
chromatin
granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins
sister chromatids
two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
interphase
stage when genetic material duplicates, and chromosomes become visible
mitotic phase
the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually divides
mitosis
process where a cell divides into 2 daughter cells
cytokinesis
stage where the cytoplasm divides, forming daughter cells
prophase
stage the cell is in the longest; mitotic spindle forms, centrosomes migrate to opposite ends; chromatin coils into chromosomes; nuclear membrane disperses
metaphase
stage where spindle is formed; chromosomes line up along the plate
anaphase
stage where chromosomes separate from the centromere, dividing to arrive at poles
telophase
stage when cleavage furrow forms;nuclear envelope forms,and chromosomes uncoil
centrosomes
material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during the cell division
growth factor
a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
density-dependent inhibition
when cells stop growing because they come in contact with another
anchorage dependence
in order to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle
tumor
an abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue
benign tumor
an abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body
malignant tumor
an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site
carcinoma
cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as the skin or the lining of the intestinal tract
sarcoma
cancer of the supportive tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle
leukemia
a type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells
lymphoma
cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells
nondisjunction
a disorder where there are abnormal number of chromosomes due to failure of chromosome pairs to seperate
diploid cells
Cells that have two sets of chromosomes (23 pair in humans, 46 total)
gametes
sex/ reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells
haploid cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes; result of meiosis
tetrads
the paired chromosomes consisting of four chromatids
meiosis 1
when homologous chromosomes are paired, and are crossed over; divides into 2 daughter cells with 1 set of chromosomes with 2 chromatids each
(which part)
crossing over
exchange of corresponding segments between 2 homologous chromosomes
chiasma
the site of crossing over, where 2 homologous chromosomes are attached to eachother
meiosis 2
when sister chromatids of each chromosome seprate to form 4 cells, each with half as many chromosomes as parent. (which part)
down syndrome
a disorder where a person has an extra copy of a chromosome
mitosis and cytokinesis
what are the 2 main stages of cell division?
too big
when a cell becomes ____, it can form a tumor and invade other tissues