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the complete genetic material contained in an individual

asexual reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself to form 2 identical daughter cells

sexual reproduction

process by which chromosomes from two parents go into the genes of the daughter cells


threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next

binary fission

the division of a prokaryotic cell into two offspring cells


granular material visible within the nucleus; consists of DNA tightly coiled around proteins

sister chromatids

two daughter strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the middle by a centromere


area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached

cell cycle

series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide


stage when genetic material duplicates, and chromosomes become visible

mitotic phase

the part of the cell cycle when the cell actually divides


process where a cell divides into 2 daughter cells


stage where the cytoplasm divides, forming daughter cells


stage the cell is in the longest; mitotic spindle forms, centrosomes migrate to opposite ends; chromatin coils into chromosomes; nuclear membrane disperses


stage where spindle is formed; chromosomes line up along the plate


stage where chromosomes separate from the centromere, dividing to arrive at poles


stage when cleavage furrow forms;nuclear envelope forms,and chromosomes uncoil


material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during the cell division

growth factor

a protein secreted by certain body cells that stimulates other cells to divide

density-dependent inhibition

when cells stop growing because they come in contact with another

anchorage dependence

in order to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface

cell cycle control system

a cyclically operating set of proteins that triggers and coordinates events in the eukaryotic cell cycle


an abnormal mass of cells that forms within otherwise normal tissue

benign tumor

an abnormal mass of cells that remains at its original site in the body

malignant tumor

an abnormal tissue mass that can spread into neighboring tissue and to other parts of the body; a cancerous tumor


the spread of cancer cells beyond their original site


cancer that originates in the coverings of the body, such as the skin or the lining of the intestinal tract


cancer of the supportive tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and muscle


a type of cancer of the blood-forming tissues, characterized by an excessive production of white blood cells


cancer of the tissues that form white blood cells


a disorder where there are abnormal number of chromosomes due to failure of chromosome pairs to seperate

diploid cells

Cells that have two sets of chromosomes (23 pair in humans, 46 total)


sex/ reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells

haploid cells

A cell containing only one set of chromosomes; result of meiosis


the paired chromosomes consisting of four chromatids

meiosis 1

when homologous chromosomes are paired, and are crossed over; divides into 2 daughter cells with 1 set of chromosomes with 2 chromatids each
(which part)

crossing over

exchange of corresponding segments between 2 homologous chromosomes


the site of crossing over, where 2 homologous chromosomes are attached to eachother

meiosis 2

when sister chromatids of each chromosome seprate to form 4 cells, each with half as many chromosomes as parent. (which part)

down syndrome

a disorder where a person has an extra copy of a chromosome

mitosis and cytokinesis

what are the 2 main stages of cell division?

too big

when a cell becomes ____, it can form a tumor and invade other tissues

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