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Looking At Movies | UNIT FOUR | Chapter 9 | Sound
Terms in this set (29)
A state-of-the-art concept combining the crafts of editing and mixing, involving both theoretical and practical issues; represents advocacy for movie sound (to counter some people's tendency to favor the movie image; pioneered by Franics Ford Coppola and Walter Murch).
A separate recording tape occupied by one specific type of sound recorded for a movie (one track for vocals, one for sound effects, one for music, etc.).
The group that generates and controls a movie's sound physcially, manipulating its properties to produce the effects that the director desires.
A polelike machanical device for holding the microphone in the air, out of camera range, that can be moved in almost any direction
Also known as looping or dubbing. The replacing of dialogue, which can be done manually (that is, with the actors watching the footage, synchronizing their lips with it and rereading the lines) or through computerized automatic dialogue replacement (ADR).
The standard technique of recording film sound on a medium separate from the picture; this technique allows both for maximum quality control of the medium and for the many aspects of manipulating sound during postproduction editing, mixing, and synchronization.
Also known as rushes. Usually, synchronized picture/sound work prints of a day's shooting that can be studied by the director, editor, and other crew members before the next day's shooting begins.
The speed with which a sound is producted (the number of sound waves produced per second). The speed of sound remains fairly constant when it passes through air, but it varies in different media and in the same medium at different temperatures.
The perceived "highness"or "lowness" of the sound.
The degree of motion of air (or other medium) within a sound wave. The greater the amplitude of the sound wave, the harder it strikes the eardrum, and thus the louder the sound.
The wavelengths that make up a sound.
Also known as timbre, texture, or color. The complexity of a sound, which is definted by its harmonic content; described as simple or complex; is the characteristic that distinguishes a sound from others of the same pitch and loudness.
The faithfulness or unfaithfulness of a sound to its source.
Sound whose source is visible on the screen or whose source is implied to be present by the action of the film:
- voices of characters
- sounds made by objects in the story
- music represented as coming from instruments in the story space ( = source music)
Diegetic sound is any sound presented as originated from source within the film's world.
Digetic sound can be either on screen or off screen depending on whatever its source is within the frame or outside the frame.
Another term for diegetic sound is actual sound.
Sound whose source is neither visible on the screen nor has been implied to be present in the action:
- narrator's commentary
- sound effects which is added for the dramatic effect
Non-diegetic sound is represented as coming from the a source outside story space.
The distinction between diegetic or non-diegetic sound depends on our understanding of the conventions of film viewing and listening.
We know of that certain sounds are represented as coming from the story world, while others are represented as coming from outside the space of the story events.
A play with diegetic and non-diegetic conventions can be used to create ambiguity (horror), or to surprise the audience (comedy).
Another term for non-diegetic sound is commentary sound.
The sound flow is apparently born out of the narrative situation itself. It is a mode of connecting images and sounds that appears to follow a flexible organic process of development, variation, and growth, born out of the narrative situation itself and the feelings it inspires.
The sound swells, dies, reappears, diminishes, or grows as if cued by the characters' feelings, perceptions, or behaviors.
The sound includes effects of discontinuity as nondiegetic interventions.
External logic brings out effects of discontinue and rupture to the represented content for example:
- Editing that disrupts the continuity of an image or a sound.
- Sudden changes of tempo
One variation on the mental, subjective point of view of an individual character that allows us to see a character and hear that characters thoughts (in his or her own voice, even though the character's lips do not move.
A form of diegetic sound that emanates from a source that we both see and hear; may be internal sound or external sound.
A form of sound, either (non)diegetic that derives from a source we do not see. When diegetic, it consists of sound effects, music, or vocals that emanate from the world of the story. When nondiegetic, it takes the form of a musical score or narration by someone who is not a character in the story.
Sound that is diegetic and occurs onscreen.
Sound that has previously been established in the movie and occurs when a character has a mental flahsback to an earlier voice that recalls a conversation or a sound that identifies a place.
Sound effects are not matched with a visible source of the sound on screen. Such sounds are included so as to provide an appropriate emotional nuance, and they may also add to the realism of the film.
Sound that emanates from the ambience (background) of the setting or environment being filmed, either recorded during production or added during postproduction.
Although it may incorporate other types of film sound--dialogue, narration, sound effects, Foley sounds, and music--ambient sound does not include any unintentionally recorded noise during production.
The lip- synchronous speech of characters who are either visible onscreen or speaking off screen, say from another part of the room that is not visible or from an adjacent room.
A sound artificially created for the soundtrack that has a definite function in telling the story.
A sound belonging to a special category sound of effects, invented in the 1930's by Jack Foley, a sound technician at Universal Studios. Technicians known as Foley artists create these sounds in specially equipped studios, where they use a variety of props and other equipment to stimulate sounds such as footsteps in the mud, jingling of car keys, or cutlery hitting a plate.
Automatic Dialogue Replacement (ADR
Rerecording done via computer -- a faster, less expensive, and more technically sophisticated process than rerecording that is done with actors.
The volume or intenisty of a sound, which is deinfed by its amplitude; is described as either loud or soft.
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