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95 terms

AP pyschology ch. 2

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Schizophrenia
a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
Hallucinations
false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus
Delusions
false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders
Parkinson's disease
a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
Endorphins
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Antidepressants
drugs that combat depression by affecting the levels or activity of neurotransmitters in the brain
Nervous System
the sensory and control apparatus consisting of a network of nerve cells
Central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Spinal Cord
cord of nerve tissue that conducts messages between the brain and the peripheral nerves
Spine
the series of vertebrae forming the axis of the skeleton and protecting the spinal cord
Reflex
an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus
Spinal reflex
A simple, unlearned response to a stimulus that may involve only two neurons.
Peripheral nervous system
The section of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system
the part of the nervous system of vertebrates that controls involuntary actions of the smooth muscles and heart and glands
Sympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations
Parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Hindbrain
the posterior portion of the brain including cerebellum and brainstem
Medulla
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing
Pons
a band of nerve fibers linking the medulla oblongata and the cerebellum with the midbrain
Brainstem
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions
Cerebellum
the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem; it helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
Midbrain
the middle division of brain responsible for hearing and sight; location where pain is registered; includes temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and most of the parietal lobe
Reticular Formation
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
Forebrain
top of the brain which includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, and cerebral cortex; responsible for emotional regulation, complex thought, memory aspect of personality
Thalamus
the brain's sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem; it directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
Basal Ganglia
structures in the forebrain that help to control movement
Hypothalamus
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
Limbic System
a system of functionally related neural structures in the brain that are involved in emotional behavior
Amygdala
limbic system component associated with emotion, particularly fear and anger
Hippocampus
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
Cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Cerebrum
area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
Cerebral Hemispheres
divided into right and left by the cerebrum.
Corpus Callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
Occipital Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field
Parietal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
Somatosensory cortex
a brain area at the front of the parietal lobes that registers and processes body sensations
Frontal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments
Motor Cortex
an area of the brain, near the rear of the frontal lobes, that controls voluntary movement
Temporal Lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear
EEG
a graphical record of electrical activity of the brain
CT
a method of examining body organs by scanning them with X rays and using a computer to construct a series of cross-sectional scans along a single axis
PET
using a computerized radiographic technique to examine the metabolic activity in various tissues (especially in the brain)
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain
Lesioning
Destroying a piece of the brain.
Electrical Recording
study of the brain w/ EEG, single-unit recording, brain damage, sleep, epilepsy, happiness
Electrical Stimulation
A technique for exploring the cerebral cortex with weak electric current to observe motor responses.
Lateralization
specialization of the two cerebral hemispheres for particular operations
Broca's Area
controls language expression-an aread of the frontal, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
neurons
nerve cells
brain
that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers
soma
cell body of a neuron
axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
terminal buttons
Small knobs at the end of axons that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
glands
A cell, a group of cells, or an organ that produces a secretion for use elsewhere in the body or in a body cavity or for elimination from the body.
hormones
Chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
interneurons
Central nervous system neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
nerve
any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
nodes of ranvier
small gaps in the myelin sheath of medullated axons
multiple sclerosis
a chronic progressive nervous disorder involving loss of myelin sheath around certain nerve fibers
ions
electrically charged atoms that have gained or lost electrons.
resting potential
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
depolarization
a loss of polarity or polarization
action potential
the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
all-or-none principle
refers to the fact that the action potential in the axon occurs either full blown or not at all
refractory period
(neurology) the time after a neuron fires or a muscle fiber contracts during which a stimulus will not evoke a response
reuptake
a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
receptor site
A site on the receiving neuron in which neurotransmitters dock.
enzymes
proteins that act as biological catalysts
neuromodulators
Chemical messengers that do not act directly on synapses but modify neuron sensitivity to synpatic stimulation or inhibition.
antagonists
drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
wernicke's area
controls language reception-a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression;usually in the left temporal lobe
aphasia
inability to use or understand language (spoken or written) because of a brain lesion
plasticity
the ability of the brain to adapt to damage by reorganizing functions
stroke
a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
prefrontal cortex
part of frontal lobe responsible for thinking, planning, and language
laceration
cut or wound
concussion
injury to the brain caused by a blow
epilepsy
chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizure activity
split-brain patients
people whose corpus callosum has been surgically severed
endocrine system
the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity
pancreas
gland that produces hormones that regulate blood sugar; produces enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; and produces sodium bicarbonate, a base that neutralizes stomach acid
diabetes
A condition of abnormal use of glucose, usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin.
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
pituitary gland
the master gland of the endocrine system
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
adrenal gland
source of the hormone norepinephrine which affects arousal