Full NASM 6th ed Textbook
Terms in this set (130)
The alteration of a muscles length that surrounds a joint.
What are the four sections of NASM's code of professional conduct?
Professionalism, Confidentiality, Ethical/legal and Business practice
Proprioceptively enriched environments
Unstable environments that are controlled.
Overweight BMI and Weight range
Between 25 and 29.9 BMI and between 25 and 30 pounds over the recommended height to weight ratio
The 3 stages of the OPT training model
Stabilization, strength, and power.
The kinetic chain (human movement system)
made up of three primary systems. The skeletal system (bones and joints), the muscular system (ligaments, tendons, muscles, and fascia) and the nervous system (peripheral and central nerves).
One of the primary organ systems in the body. Is a combination of billions of cells that communicate with one another in a network within the body.
This is the cumulative sensory input to the CNS (Central nervous system) from all of the various mechanoreceptors that can sense limb movement and body position.
Sensory neurons (afferent)
This is a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses to the central nervous system from a sense organ.
Motor neurons (efferent)
This is a type of nerve cell that sends impulses to glands, muscles and other effectors. Stimulates muscle contraction to iniciate movement.
Specialized receptors that respond to pressure inside of tissues and transmit signals through sensory nerves.
Sensory receptors that sit parallel to muscular fibers. These special spindles are able to detect the length of a muscle and how fast it changes length
Golgi tendon organs
These receptors can sense the change in muscular tension and the rate that this tension changes. When you activate the Golgi tendon organ it will cause a muscle to relax
The cells that help remove bone tissue
The cells that help create new bone tissue
This is what connects bones to other bones and helps joint support
Type I (slow twitch) muscle fibers
These are also known as endurance fibers. They are smaller, produce less power, receive more oxygen and are more mitochondrial dense.
Type II (fast twitch) muscle fibers
These do not have as much endurance, have less oxygen delivery, have short-term contractions, can produce more force and power and are larger than type I fibers.
This is the prime mover
This assists and helps the prime mover
These muscles relax in order to permit the prime mover to do its work
The cardiorespiratory system
Composed of the respiratory and cardiovascular system
Carry blood away from the heart to the rest of the body
Return blood to the heart from the rest of the body
The amount of blood pumped out the heart with each contraction
Sinoatrial (SA) node
The "pacemaker" of the heart because it initiates the heartbeat
The functions of blood
1: Protection: The white blood cells help to protect your body against diseases and blood clotting helps with fluid loss.
2: Regulation: Blood helps keep a stable body temperature, electrolyte, and water level as well as pH.
3: Transportation: The primary function of blood is to transport nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body. It also takes away CO2 and various wastes from the cells and delivers hormones to specific tissues.
The accumulation of chemical and physical processes by which its material substance is created, destroyed and maintained.
This is the study of how energy transforms within living systems
This is a polysaccharide that is tasteless and white and is the primary carbohydrate storage in mammals. It occurs primarily in the muscles as well as in the liver.
These are three fatty acids that connect to a glycerol. This makes up most of the fat storage in the human body.
When glucose is formed from a non-carbohydrate such as fats or protein. This pathway produces the most ATP.
The transfer and energy storage unit inside of the cells of the body. When the chemical bonds that hold together ATP break, energy is released for work such as the contraction of a muscle.
A position above a point of reference.
A position below a point of reference.
The anatomic position is important as a point of reference for anatomic nomenclature. The anatomic position is when the body is erect, the arms at your side and your palms facing forward.
This is a bending movement where a relative angle between two adjacent sections decreases.
This is the opposite of flexion. The relative angle between adjacent sections increases
The sagittal plane splits the body into a right half and they left half. Extension and flexion are movements in this plane.
This is a vertical plane that has right angles compared to the sagittal plane breaking up the body between frontal and posterior planes.
The plane that divides the body into a lower and upper section.
A concentric muscle action: happens when the contraction is accompanied by the shortening of the muscle tissue.
This is the perfect length of a muscle that will result in the most force produced.
Groups of muscles that work with one another in order to produce a force on a joint.
The process of improving one's motor skills with practice. This results in lasting changes and one's overall capability of responding.
What shouldn't be done by PT's
Diagnosing of conditions or injuries
Rehab or physical therapy
Providing meal plans or detailed diets
What should be done by PT's
You should coach clients
You should identify your client's limits and past injuries
Recommend a physician for medical advice
You can provide general knowledge on nutrition but should refer a nutritional list or dietitian for more specific needs.
Objective information examples
Subjective information examples
Hobbies, general diet, and lifestyle
A brief medical history
This helps determine possible risks of training with a client.
The two most common ways of recording heart rate are:
Using the radial pulse on the thumb side of the wrist (preferred method), or the carotid pulse on the side of the neck (use with caution).
The predicted maximum heart rate equation:
Body composition assessment types
BMI (Body mass index) ranges
<18.5 = Underweight
18.5 to 24.9 = Healthy
25 to 29.9 = Overweight
30 to 34.9 = Obese
>35 = Severe obesity
Lower crossed syndrome
This is a postural distortion syndrome that is characterized by an anterior tilt of the pelvis or lower back.
Upper crossed syndrome
This is characterized by a forward head posture and rounded shoulders.
The tendency of the body to seek the path of least resistance during functional movement.
Stretching performed to simulate normal, functional movement.
Self-myofascial release (SMR)
Applying gentle force to an adhesion "knot," changing the elastic muscle fibers from a bundled position to a straighter alignment in the direction of the muscle or fascia.
It is good to use this type of flexibility in order to increase the range of motion at the joints, improve muscular imbalances/posture and corrected joint movement. These stretches should be held for 20 to 30 seconds. Myofascial release and static stretching are forms of flexibility training.
This type of flexibility training is for preparing muscles to be used during exercise. Not only does it stretch your muscles, but it also warms them up and prepares them for activity.
The alteration of the muscle length that surrounds a joint.
Going beyond the point in your training where you cannot recover.
Specific warm-ups are used to get the body ready for specific exercises. You can think of a specific warm-up as performing knee push-ups to warm up the chest before moving onto the bench press.
Intensity intervals vary throughout the workout. An example is one-minute high-intensity interval and then 3-minute recovery.
Recommended exercise for adults
150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or 75 minutes of vigorous high-intensity aerobic exercise.
All of the muscles that attached to or pass the joints in the lumbar pelvic complex.
Draw in maneuver
Where you draw your navel to your spine without spinal flexion. This helps to activate the inner unit of the core for stability.
Local stabilization system
Muscles that attached to the vertebrae.
Consist mainly of type I slow twitch fibers.
Provide support from one vertebra to another vertebra and are responsible for intersegmental and intervertebral stability.
Helps with postural and proprioception control
Consists of the muscles: internal obliques, pelvic floor muscles, lumbar multifidis, diaphragm, and transverse abdominis.
Stabilization core training
Mostly done with stability balls or isometric holds. Between 12 and 20 repetitions, with a slow tempo, 0 to 90 seconds of rest and 1-4 sets. Example: floor prone cobra.
Strength core training
Include physically moving from the core, 8 to 12 repetitions, medium tempo, 0 to 60 seconds of rest and 2 to 3 sets. Example: reverse crunch.
Power core training
explosive movements including throwing medicine balls, 8 to 12 repetitions, 0 to 60 seconds of rest for 2 to 3 sets. Example: rotation chest pass.
Balance is influenced by
age, inactivity, and injury.
Stabilization phase of balance training
In this phase, there is no bending of the support hip or leg. It consists of 12 to 20 repetitions (or 6 to 10 on a single leg), with 0 to 90 seconds of rest and at a slow tempo.
Strength phase of balance training
The strength phase includes bending at the knee or hip of the support leg. Some examples are toe touches, or unilateral squats. These are done for 8 to 12 repetitions, with a 0 to 60-second rest, and at a moderate tempo.
Power phase for balance training
The power phase includes hopping on the support leg (planted leg), is done for approximately 8 to 12 repetitions, 0 to 60 seconds of rest and at a moderate tempo as well. Imagine doing single leg jumps on the box.
Reactive training enhances:
Motor unit synchronization, Motor unit recruitment, and Firing frequency.
The rate of force production:
This is the ability for the muscles to exert the maximal amount of force output in the shortest period of time.
This includes plyometrics. These are exercises that utilize powerful and quick movements to enhance neuromuscular efficiency, the rate of force production and firing frequency.
Plyometric exercises: the different phases
Phase number one is the eccentric phase
Phase number two is amortization
Phase number three is the concentric or the unloading phase
Stabilization phase plyometric training
These exercises have a 3 to 5-second pause while landing on the ground are done for approximately 5 to 8 repetitions at a steady tempo with 0 to 90 seconds of rest. Some examples include box jumps with stabilization or squat jumps with stabilization.
Strength phase plyometric training
These exercises are done with repetitive movements such as a jump squat that is repeated. They are done for 8 to 10 repetitions, at a mid-tempo with 0 to 60 seconds of rest in between. Some examples include tuck jumps and squat jumps.
Power phase plyometric training
These exercises in the power phase are done as quickly as possible. They are done for 8 to 12 repetitions with a 0 to 60-second rest between. Some examples include single leg power step up, proprioceptive plyometrics and ice skaters.
This is the velocity of a person going straight ahead. stride length x stride rate
This is the ability of a person to react without hesitating.
This demands a high level of neuromuscular efficiency in order to keep one's center of gravity. Whereas speed focuses on one's movement in one single plane, agility focuses on multiple planes. Requires constant deceleration and acceleration.
Stabilization phase for speed, agility and quickness program design
These exercises consist of many sagittal plane movements. They are done for 1 to 2 sets with 2 to 3 repetitions and a 0 to 60-second rest. Some exercises include cone shuffles and agility ladder drills.
Strength phase for speed, agility and quickness program design
The strength phase includes more frontal plane movements with 3 to 4 sets, 3 to 5 repetitions with a 0 to 60 second rest time. Some exercises include box drill and 5-10-5 T-drill.
Power phase for speed, agility and quickness program design
The strength phase includes all of the planes of motion and includes maximal effort. These are done for 3 to 5 sets, 3 to 5 repetitions and 0 to 90 seconds of rest time. Some exercises include modified box drill and partner mirror drill.
When you decrease the number of repetitions as you increase the weight that you perform. Also when you increase the repetitions and decrease the weight.
Peripheral heart action
This is when you alternate between lower body exercises and upper body in a circuit style fashion.
When you complete all of your sets for one exercise before changing to another exercise.
General adaptation syndrome (how the body reacts to stress)
Phase number one: the alarm stage
Phase number two: the resistance stage
Phase number three: the exhaustion stage
Mental and physical benefits from resistance training
Will help to improve muscle tone and strength.
Helps in protecting the joints from injury.
Helps to improve one's muscle/fat ratio.
Helps to improve one's stamina.
Helps with the control of chronic diseases such as depression, obesity, back pain, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes.
Helps with pain management.
Improved balance and mobility.
Reduces one's risk of injury.
Helps to increase bone density which reduces one's risk of osteoporosis.
Helps with a better sense of well-being, self-confidence and can improve one's mood.
Helps with insomnia.
Helps with performance enhancement.
All five phases of the OPT training model
Phase 1: stabilization endurance
Phase 2: strength and endurance
Phase 3: hypertrophy
Phase 4: maximal strength
Phase 5: power
Free Weights modality info
Helps with core stabilization
Can be used by a wide variety of clients with different goals
Helps with postural stability
Exercise technique is important
Machines modality info
Great for new clients (not as intimidating)
A spotter is not required
Great for clients with special needs
Can provide different intensities and weights
Elastic bands (rubber tubing) modality info
Cheap alternative to resistance training with weights
Different planes of motion can be used easily
Varying thickness, shapes and colors for different resistances
Can reach wide range of motions
Medicine balls modality info
Comes in different weights
Good for power, endurance, and muscular strength
Benefits with dynamic power
Multiple planes of motion and intensities
Kettle bells modality info
Good for balance and coordination
Helps with core stability
Helps with the grip strength
Exercise technique is important
Body weight exercises modality info
Uses one's own body weight as the resistance
Exercise form is important
Additional equipment is unnecessary
You can train all the planes of motion
sets, reps, intensity and frequency for Training seniors
1 to 3 sets, 8 to 20 repetitions, 40% to 80% of one rep max, 3 to 5 days per week.
sets, reps, and frequency for Working with obese clients
1 to 3 sets, 10 to 15 repetitions, 2 to 3 days per week.
sets, reps, and frequency for Working with clients with diabetes
1 to 3 sets, 10 to 15 repetitions, 2 to 3 days per week.
sets, reps, and frequency for Working with clients with hypertension
1 to 3 sets, 10 to 20 repetitions, 2 to 3 days per week
Energy for fats, carbohydrates, and proteins
Fats: 9 kcal per gram
Carbohydrates (CHO): 4 kcal per gram
Protein (PRO): 4 kcal per gram
Alcohol: 7 kcal program
water and daily intake recommendation
If you are a woman you should be drinking 2.2 L per day. If you are a man you should be drinking 3 L of water per day.
Monounsaturated fatty acids
This type of fatty acid increases the good HDL cholesterol and they have exactly one double bond on the carbon chain. Mono refers to one.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fats increase the good cholesterol and are made up of essential fatty acids that are not produced by the human body. They have more than one double bond in the carbon chain. The word poly refers to more than one.
The recommended amount of daily fiber
It is recommended that adults get approximately 38 g of fiber every day. The minimum recommendation is 25 g per day.
It Is recommended that athletes consume how much protein?
Between 1.2 and 1.4 g of protein for every kilogram of body weight.
The 9 essential amino acids
Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Methionine, Lysine, Valine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Hystidine
1000 calories. The energy required to increase the temperature of 1 L of water by 1°C. When we say calories in everyday speech, we really mean kilocalories.
RDA (recommended dietary allowance)
This is the approximate amount of calories/nutrients that one should consume on a daily basis to maintain good health.
AI (Adequate Intake)
This is the recommended daily intake of a certain nutrient. This is only used when RDA is not determined.
UL (Tolerable upper intake level)
This is classified as the highest level of nutrient intake that is most likely to not have any risk for adverse effects for most of the general public.
Common vitamins that can have adverse effects when consumed excessively
Recommended Caffeine for exercise
3 to 6 mg per kilogram of body weight one hour before workout.
Stages of change
Stage 1: Precontemplation
Stage 2: Contemplation
Stage 3: Preparation
Stage 4: Action
Stage 5: Maintenance
The Initial session with a client
You basically have only 20 seconds to make a good first impression with a new client. Body language is one of the first things your client will notice about you as a trainer. To build a relationship with your client, you need to keep moving and stay positive with them. When you are setting goals with your new client, make sure to keep health concerns in mind. You need to memorize the SMART goals
Effective communication skills:
Goal setting (SMART goals)
Positive self talk
This includes finding things that your client likes to do and getting them to feel the same way in regards to exercise. Overall, many people have super negative ideas when it comes to workout programs, exercises, and equipment.
Imagery cognitive strategy
Imagery can be a very powerful tool. Having your client imagine themselves performing exercise over and over again, eventually, they will believe that they can.
Info on Providing great customer service
As a personal trainer, you should never take your clients for granted and never see them as an interruption. Although the questions your clients ask may seem repetitive, giving off a bad impression is the worst thing you can do. Your clients are the ones paying the bills, and need to be the priority at all times. Creating a great first impression, using proper body language and vocal tone are essential.
pros and cons of working at a Commercial fitness clubs
One of the benefits of working at a commercial gym is that the salesman provides lots of opportunities for clients. Typically you will find pay rate structures, world-class equipment, and in-house training. Some of the cons include lower pay and no control over marketing or sales.
pros and cons of working as an Independent contractor
Some of the advantages include - you may be able to control your schedule, you may be able to control marketing and sales, there are no overhead costs for equipment, rent etc. The cons are - probably no employment benefits, personal marketing for your business may not be allowed, the club will take a percentage of your sessions.
pros and cons of Owning your own facility
Can be very financially beneficial, very targeted marketing and networking, appealing to personalized clients. Some of the cons are - You are completely responsible for all of the overhead including your equipment and rent for space.
The 10 steps for success as a trainer:
1: Set a desired annual income
2: How much do you need to learn on a weekly basis to re-achieve this annual goal?
3: To earn this weekly goal, how many sessions do you need to do?
4: What is the closing percentage?
5: What is the timeframe that new clients will be acquired?
6: How many potential clients will you need to interact with in total?
7: How many potential clients will you need to contact on a daily basis?
8: How many potential clients will you need to contact on an hourly basis?
9: Make sure to ask for the contact information for each member at the gym
10: Always follow-up!