(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) This was an alliance created in 1949 to serve as a military counterweight to the Soviet forces in Europe. It was part of the struggle for political dominance of Europe between the United States and the Soviet Union. According to the treaty, an attack on one would be considered an attack on all; its members included Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the USA; Turkey and Greece joined in 1952; West Germany joined in 1954 A multinational organization established in 1960 by oil-producing states. It was started to raise the price of oil through cooperation as in 1973 during the Arab-Israeli War. As a result, oil prices quadrupled in a three-month period. Member nations included Venezuela, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Indonesia, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria, Ecuador, and Gabon. Ecuador withdrew in 1993 and Gabon withdrew in 1996.