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Campbell Bio Vocab- Chapter 5
Terms in this set (53)
Alpha (a) helix
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific pattern of hydrogen bonding.
the opposite arrangements of the sugar phosphate backbones in DNA double helix
an organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. _______s serve as the monomers of polypeptides.
Beta (ß) pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth. Two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
a structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β glycosidic linkages.
a protein molecule that assists the proper folding of other proteins
a structural polysaccharide, consisting of amino sugar monomers, found in many fungal cell walls and in the exoskeletons of all arthropods.
a steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids, such as hormones.
a glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water, in which case it is also called a dehydration reaction.
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
a process in which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, theeby becoming biologically inactive.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's protein
the sugar component of DNA, having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage formed during dehydration synthesis.
the form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
a protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
A lipid consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol or triglyceride.
A long carbon chain carboxylic acid. _____s vary in length and in the number of double bonds; three ______s linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also known as a tricylglycerol or triglyceride.
stored by animals, a polymer of glucose that is like amylopectin, but more extensively branched
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals, the animal equivalent of starch
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
a type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude the water
One of a group of compounds, including fats, phospholipids, and steroids, that mix poorly, if at all, with water.
giant molecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acid
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, _______s have molecular formulas that are generally some multiple of CH2O.
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers, serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. Two types DNA and RNA.
the building block of a nucleic acid, consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
The covalent bond between the carboxyl group on one amino acid and the amino group on another, formed by a dehydration reaction.
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as a polar, hydrophilic head. _____ form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together.
a polymer consisting of many nucleotide monomers, serves as a blueprint for proteins and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities.
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
A polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into a specific three dimensional structure.
One of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Adenine (A) and guanine (G) are purines
one of two types of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine ©, thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
The particular shape of a complex, aggregate protein, defined by the characteristic three dimensional arrangement of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide.
Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of the backbone.
stored polysaccharide of plants consisting of glucose polymers joined by alpha 1 4 linkages
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various chemical groups attached.
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges.
An unsaturated fat containing one or more trans double bonds.
Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; also called a fat or a triglyceride.
Unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
X- ray crystallography
a technique that depends on the diffraction of an x-ray beam by the individual atoms of a molecule to study the 3 - D structure of the molecule.
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