64 terms

Ch. 6 General Anatomy

Review Break down of chapter 6
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Terms in this set (...)

Anatomy
Study of human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized; the science of the structure of organisms or their parts.
Physiology
The Study of the function and activities performed by the body's structures
Histology
The study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy
Cell Structure
Composed of protoplasm, a colorless, jellylike substance, in which protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts, and water are present (Visualize the white of a raw egg)
Nucleus
The dense, active protoplasm found in the center of cells; it plays an important part in cell reproduction and metabolism
Cytoplasm
All the protoplasm of a cell except that which is in the nucleus; the water fluid that contains food materials necessary for growth, reproduction, and self-repair of the cell
Centrosome
Small, round body in the cytoplasm; it controls the transportation of substances in and out of cells, and affects reproduction of cells
Cell Membrane
The cell wall; a delicate protoplasmic material that encloses a living plaint or animal cell, and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
Cell Reproduction/Division
AKA Mitosis Adequate supply of food,oxygen, water, elimination of waste, and proper temperature. Without these conditions and if there is a presence of toxins or pressure , growth and health of the cells are impaired. Most body cells are capable of growth and self-repair during their life cycle
Cell Metabolism
The complex chemical process taking place in living organism whereby the body cells are nourished and supplied with the energy needed to carry out their activities . There are two phases
Anabolism
This is constructive metabolism. It is the process of building up larger molecules from smaller ones; the body stores water, food, and oxygen for when they are needed for growth and repair.
Catabolism
This phase of metabolism involves breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones, often resulting in the liberation of energy to perform functions such as muscular effort, secretions, or digestion.
Tissue
A collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. There are 4 types
Connective Tissue
Serves to support, protect, and blind together other tissues of the body; examples: bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, fascia (which separates muscle), and fat or adipose tissue
Epithelial Tissue
Protective covering on body surfaces, such as the skin, mucous membranes, linings of the heart, digestive respiratory organs, and glands
Muscular Tissue
Contracts and moves various parts of the body
Nerve Tissue
Carries messages to and from the brain, and controls and coordinates all body functions
Organs
a structure consisting of several tissues adapted as a group to perform specific functions
Brain
Controls the body
Eyes
controls vision
Heart
Circulates the blood
Kidneys
Excrete water and waste products
Lungs
Supply oxygen to the blood
Liver
Removes toxic products of digestion
Skin
Forms external protective covering of the body
Stomach & Intestines
Digest food
Systems
Groups of organs that cooperate for the welfare of the body.
Circulatory
controls the steady circulation of the blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels
Digestive
Changes food into nutrients and wastes; consists of mouth, stomach, salivary, and gastric glands, and other organs
Endocrine
Affects the growth, development, sexual activites, and health of the entire body; consists of specialized glands
Excretory
Purifies the body by the elimination of waste matter; consists of kidneys, liver, skin, intestines, and longs
Integumentary
servers as a protective covering organ system consisting of skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands; protects tissues, regulates body temperature, supports sensory receptors
Lymphatic
protects body from disease by developing immunities and destroying disease-causing toxins and bacteria
Muscular
Covers, shapes, and supports the skeleton tissue; also contracts and moves various parts of the body; consists of muscles
Nervous
controls and coordinates all other systems and makes them work harmoniously and efficiently; consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Reproductive
Responsible for processes by which plants and animals produce offspring
Respiratory
Enables breathing supplying the body with oxygen and elimination carbon dioxide as a waste product;
consists of the lungs and air passages
Skeletal
Physical foundation of the body; consists of the bones and movable and immovable joints
Skeletal System
Physical foundation of the body; composed of 206 bones
Bone Composition
The connective tissue in bone is organic and mineral
1/3 organic matter
Cells and blood are organic matter
2/3 mineral matter
Mainly calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate Osteology is the scientific study of bones, their stru
Osteology
the study of bones, their structure and functions. Os is the technical term for bone
Primary function of the skeletal system
Give shape and support to body; protect internal structures and organs ; serve as attachments for muscles; Acts as levers to produce body movement; Help produce white and red blood cells (bone marrow fuction); store minerals such as calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium
Joints
The connections between two or more bones of the skeleton
Movable Joints
Elbow, Knees, and hips
Immovable
Pelvis. skull,
Cranium (Bones of the skull)
An oval Bone that protects the brain
Facial skeleton (Bones of the skull)
Made up of 14 bones
Bone of the Cranum
again that is the oval bone that shapes the top of the head and protect the brain
Occipital bone (Bone of the Cranium)
Forms lower back part of cranium
Parietal bone (Bone of the Cranium)
Forms the side and top of cranium (crown)
Frontal bone (Bone of the Cranium)
Forms forehead
Temporal bone (Bone of the Cranium)
forms the sides of he head in ear region
Ethmoid Bone (Bone of the Cranium)
Light spongy bone between the eye sockets; forms part of the nasal cavities
Sphenold bone (Bone of the Cranium)
Joins all of the bones of the cranium together
Nasal bones (2) (Bones of the face)
Form the bridge of the nose
Two lacrimal bones ( bones of the face)
Small thin bones located at the front inner wall of the orbits
Two zygonatic bone (bones of the face)
Also called malar; form the prominence of the cheeks
Maxillae (2) (bones of the face)
Upper jaw bones that join to form whole upper jaw
Mandible (1) (bones of the face)
Lower jawbone; largest and strongest bone of the face; forms lower jaw
Hyoid bone ( Bones of the Neck)
U-shaped bone located in from part of throat; known as the Adam's apple
Cervical Vertebrae (Bones of the Neck)
Seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column located in neck regionl
Thorax (Chest Shoulder & Back bones)
The chest; It is an elastic bony cage that serves as the protective framework for the heart, lungs, and other delicate internal organs