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Chemistry Chapter 10
Terms in this set (42)
are the starting substances that undergo change in a chemical reaction.
are the substances produced as a result of a chemical reaction.
Law of conservation of mass
mass is neither created nor destroyed in ay ordinary chemical reaction.
is a representation for a chemical reaction that uses chemical symbols and chemical formulas instead of words to describe the changes that occur in a chemical reaction.
The conventions used in writing chemical equations #1
The correct formulas of the reactants are always written on the left side of the equation.
The conventions used in writing chemical equations #2
The correct formulas of the products are always written on the right side of the equation
The conventions used in writing chemical equations #3
The reactants and products are separated by an arrow pointing toward the products
The conventions used in writing chemical equations #4
Plus signs are used to separate different reactants or different products from each other.
For a chemical equation to be valid, it must satisfy two conditions:
1. It must be consistent with experimental facts.
2. It must be consistent with the law of conservation of mass.
Balanced chemical equation
is a chemical equation that has the same number of atoms of each element involved in the reaction on each side of the equation.
is a number placed to the left of a chemical formula in a chemical equation that changes the amount but not the identity of a substance.
-Coefficient (affects both the H and O)
-Subscript (affects only H)
Four additional guidelines concerning chemical equations and the balancing process #1:
The coefficients in a balanced equation are always the smallest set of whole numbers that will balance the equation.
Four additional guidelines concerning chemical equations and the balancing process #2:
It is useful to consider polyatomic ions as single entities in balancing chemical equation, provided they maintain their identities in the chemical reaction.
Four additional guidelines concerning chemical equations and the balancing process #3:
Subscripts in the chemical formula of a reactant or products should never be altered (changed) during the balancing process.
Four additional guidelines concerning chemical equations and the balancing process #4:
Knowing the procedures for balancing chemical equations does not enable you to predict what the products of a chemical reaction will be.
"reacts with" or "and"
Aqueous Solution (a substance dissolved in water)
is a chemical reaction in which a single product is produced from tow (or more) reactants.
-X + Y → XY
is a chemical reaction in which a single reactant is converted into two or more simpler substances.
-XY→ X + Y
is a chemical reaction in which one element within a compound is replaced by another element.
-X + YZ → Y + XZ
is a chemical reaction in which tow compound exchange parts with each other and form two new compounds.
-AX + BY → AY + BX
is a chemical reaction in which a substance reacts with oxygen (usually from air) that proceeds with evolution of heat and usually also a flame.
At the microscopic level of interpretation the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation give directly the numerical relationships among formula units consumed (used up) and/or produced in the chemical reaction.
At the macroscopic level of interpretation, the coefficients in a balanced chemical equation give the fixed molar rations between substances consumed and/or produced in the chemical reaction.
is the study of the quantitative relationships among reactants and products in a chemical reaction.
The most common type of stoichiometry calculation is mass to mass (gram to gram) problem.
is the reactant in a chemical reaction that is entirely consumed when the reaction goes to completion (stops).
Whenever the quantities of two or more reactants in a chemical reaction are given, it is necessary to determine which of the given quantities is the limiting reactant.
Determining the limiting reactant #1:
Determine the number of moles of each of the reactants present.
Determining the limiting reactant #2:
Calculate the number of moles of product each of the molar amounts of reactant would produce if it were the only reactant amount given. If more than one product is formed in the reaction, you need to do this mole calculation for only one of the products.
Determining the limiting reactant #3:
The reactant that produces the lower number of moles of product is the limiting reactant.
is the maximum amount of a product that can be obtained from given amounts of reactants in a chemical reaction if no losses or inefficiencies of any kind occur.
is the amount of a product actually obtained from a chemical reaction.
is the ratio of the actual (experimental) yield of a product in a chemical reaction to its theoretical (calculated) yield multiplied by 100 (to give percent).
Procedures used to produce the single overall chemical equation #1:
Write the chemical equations for the sequential steps of the reaction
Procedures used to produce the single overall chemical equation #2:
Identify and then equalize chemical equation coefficient for intermediate substances so that these substance can be canceled form the equations.
Procedures used to produce the single overall chemical equation #3:
Carry out the "cancellations" by adding the step-equations together to obtain he single overall equation.
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