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Terms in this set (105)
Four main groups of pest organisms
Weeds, invertebrate animals, pathogens, vertebrate animals
First step in pest management
Accurately identify the pest
Insects, mites, ticks, spiders, snails, and slugs
Pathogens (disease agents)
bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, parasitic microorganisms (mycoplasmas)
birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, rodents
natural control measures within environment that and destroy plant and animals including pests
6 pest management methods
Biological control, Chemical control, Cultural control, Genetic control, Mechanical/Physical control, Regulatory control
use of natural enemies (predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors) to control pests and their damage
using naturally derived and/or synthetic chemicals to manage pest
control through beliefs and values deeply internalized in the minds of individuals
regulation of enzyme activity by control of the synthesis of enzymes to control pests
method specifically taken to kill the pest directly or to indirectly make the environment unsuitable for pest entry, dispersal, survival or reproduction.
controlling pest by quarantine and eradication
control or repel pest birds
Sterilize insects or pest vertebrates
Causes leaves (foliage) to drop from plants
Promote drying or loss of moisture from plant tissues and insects
controls microorganisms (antimicrobials)
alter the growth or development of a plant and animal
controls insects and related arthopods
control mites (acaricides)
Control snails and slugs
control nematodes (roundworms)
control pest fish
Control predatory vertebrates
Repel insects, mites, ticks, pest vertebrates, invertebrates, birds, and mammals
what is mode of action?
how they kill the pest
what is site of action?
the specific biological system affected within the pest
a pesticide that is toxic to one pest and has no effect on others
Absorbed by the plant and consumed by insects and humans
not absorbed by treated plants or animals
Integrated Pest Management
What is IPM (Integrated Pest Management)?
balanced, tactical approach to pest control
why practice IPM's?
helps preserve a balanced and healthy ecosystem, can be ineffective, can save money, maintains a good public image
components of IPM
Identify the pest and understand its biology, Monitor the pest to be managed, Develop the pest management goal, Implement the IPM program, Record and evaluate results
Cause major damage on a regular basis
becomes a problem when a key pest is controlled or absent
these pests may cause problems once every few years when environmental conditions favor their development
The population level of a pest where action must be taken to keep the population from exceeding the Economic Injury Level.
economic injury level
the pest population density that causes losses equal to the cost of control measures
why pesticides fail?
incorrect identification, dosage, incorrect use, application timing, application equipment, environmental conditions, pesticide degradation
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
what does FIFRA regulates what?
the production, transportation, sale, use, and disposal of pesticides
FIFRA is administered by what?
EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)
two main classifications of pesticides
restricted use and unclassified use (general-use)
Any applicator who has completed certification requirements for TN to regulate pesticides
two types of certified applicators
private (agricultural commodity field and forage crops, fruit, vegetables, livestock, nurserys) and commerical (any purpose on any property)
the maximum pesticide residue limit that may legally remain on or in treated crops and animals or animal products sold for food or feed.
an EPA program to review older pesticides to ensure that they meet current scientific and regulatory standards
the label is what?
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
what does FFDCA do?
it governs the establishment of pesticide tolerances for food and feed products
Food Quality Protection Act
what does FQPA establish?
single, health-based standard to be used when assessing the risks of pesticide residues in food or feed
both private and commercial applicators must be aware of what two things?
application records and recordkeeping requirements for their industry per state
what is the main method of communication between the pesticide manufacturer and pesticide user?
parts of the label
restricted use pesticide
for retail sale to and use by certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision and only for those uses covered by the certified applicator's certification
signal words and symbols
relative acute toxicity of product to animals and humans. usually appears with "keep out of reach of children" examples are DANGER-POISON, DANGER, WARNING, CAUTION
Order of signal words from least toxic to most toxic
CAUTION, WARNING, DANGER, DANGER - POISON
provide advice on how to minimize or prevent exposure including storage, handling, first aid, personal protective equipment, emergency measures
routes of entry statements
paths of entry of pesticide into the human body, which can be more than one
specific action statements
usually follow route of entry, gives precautions and PPE necessary to help reduce exposure
protective clothing and equipment
labels include what other information regarding the person applying the pesticide and those affected by it?
first aid statements, environmental statements, special toxicity statements, general environmental statements, physical or chemical hazards, agricultural use requirements, nonag. uses, storage and disposal, directions for use
safety data sheets
provide details about specific chemical and physical properties than do pesticide labels (material safety data sheets)
Mixture of active and inert ingredients that form an end-use pesticide product
what is the purpose of inert ingredients?
mostly diluents or carriers, making the formulated product safer since active ingredients in "pure" form are not suitable for application
chemical that can affect how a pesticide works, usually to improve the action or change the characteristics of it
refers to the ability of a pesticide to cause short-term(acute) or long-term(chronic) injury
injury at the point of contact including skin discoloration and irritation, swelling, stinging, burning of eyes, nose, mouth, or throat are contact effects
Poisoning effects that occur at sites other than the entry point into the body
what are the four common ways in which pesticide handlers and other workers are exposed to pesticides?
dermal, eye, oral, inhalation
what are some of the basic areas to prevent exposure to pesticides?
oral (don't eat or drink), dermal (wash hands, long sleeve shirts pants and closed toed shoes, don't wipe gloves on clothes), ocular (wear eyewear), inhalation (avoid breathing in dusts spray droplets or vapors), decontaminate yourself and your PPE
what should you do with contaminated work clothes?
remove and replace damaged or contaminated clothes, have spare clothing, at the end of day wash or replace PPE, shower at end of work day put on complete change of clothes, laundry work clothes separately at the end of each work day
headgear for overhead application of pesticide
must be chemical resistant, wide brim hat or chemical resistant hood, NO cotton, leather or canvas material
measure of ability of pesticide to dissolve in water
The process of binding or sticking to soil particles
ability of pesticide to remain present and active in its orignal form for an extended period of time before breaking down
pesticide that remains in the environment after an application or spill
the breakdown of chemicals that do not involve living organisms, usually by a chemical reaction with water
The breakdown of chemicals by soil microorganisms, such as fungi and bacteria
pesticide movement away from application site by wind or air current
pesticide movement through water is by what two movements
runoff and leaching
surface movement off the treated site
downward movement through the soils
three places where runoff or leaching can occur?
too much pesticide is applied or spilled, too much rainwater or irrigation water, highly water-soluble or persistent pesticides are used
off target movement of a pesticide during a liquid application
how can you avoid most spray drift problems?
paying attention to spray droplet size, wind direction, and wind speed
result of application made during unstable atmospheric condition where drift occurs over a long distance more than a mile
Movement of pesticides as gaseous vapors from the target area.
Movement of solid particles from the target area in the air during or just after an application
Surface water or groundwater contamination can result from what two things?
point-source and nonpoint-source pollution
nonpoint source pollution
pollution that comes from many sources rather than from a single, specific site, blamed for outdoor environment contamination
point source pollution
pollution that comes from a specific site such as a spill entering a storm sewer, mixing and loading sites of pesticides, improper handling of spills and leaks at storage site
what is surface water contamination by pesticide is really what?
a health concern
if a pesticide is necessary, what do you choose to do the job?
the least toxic product
Reverse flow of liquids into a fill hose
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