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the individual mind ch 12
Terms in this set (15)
our characteristic way of thinking, feeling, and behaving
What is a trait?
A stable personality characteristic
What is factor analysis?
identify factors that positively correlate together (cluster) as well as the strengths of those relationships.
The Big Five theory - what are characteristics of each of the five traits? Be able to explain both the 'high' and 'low' ends of the spectrums
Openness to experience (new foods, travel) or like things unchanged
Conscientiousness conscientiousness reliable hard worker or lazy undependabe
Extroversionsurgency (extroversion- positive warmth) (introversion- cool sensitive)
Agreeablenessagreeableness trust compliance or cynical and rude
Neuroticism neuroticism anxiety, angry or emotional stability
Social-cognitive learning theories of personality
personality and situations usually interact
features cognition and learning, especially from the social environment, as important sources of individual differences in personality.
your outcomes occur because of chance, luck, opportunity, or other factors beyond your control
sees outcomes as the result of individual effort.
Locus of control
how someone attributes success or failure
How does locus of control affect personality?
internal locus of control manage stress more effectively, floss their teeth, seek shelter in response to tornado warnings, use their seat belts more consistently while driving, and are more likely to practice effective birth control
internal locus of control tend to be less sympathetic with the plight of others, viewing their troubles as due to their choices and behavior as opposed to outside forces they can't control
reciprocal determinism and self efficacy
theory of personality that features the mutual influence of the person and that of the situation on each other.
what is self efficacy?
This characteristic refers to confidence in your abilities to gain reinforcement.
If self-efficacy is high, you have strong expectations that positive outcomes are within reach. If you study hard and get good grades, you expect to obtain a good job in your chosen career. However, if self-efficacy is low, you might doubt your abilities to reach your goals.
Understand how we respond differently to different
child's behavior can be predicted by considering "if-then" relationships between situations and behavior
One child may be aggressive when approached by peers but respond passively to an adult's efforts to apply discipline, while another might show the opposite pattern. In other words, if the child experiences a particular situation (interacting with peers or adults), that child then responds with a unique, stable set of behaviors (aggressive or passive). These if-then patterns are characteristic of an individual, leading to the stable characteristics we think of as personality.
Temperament and personality
Children's temperaments shape their choice of peer relationships, as shown by the clustering of the children with higher levels of positive emotionality. At the same time, longitudinal observations show that children's temperaments also shape those of their playmates
What is the heritability of personality?
approximate heritability of 0.50 in humans heritability ratio suggests that across the human population, the variations we see in shyness from high to low are influenced moderately by both genetics and environmental factors.
How do we study the heritability of personality?
the heritability of personality?identical twins raised apart and together were similar to each other, whether the overall positive correlation for a particular characteristic was strong or weak
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