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Bio SAT Subject Test
Terms in this set (253)
nonliving factors in an ecosystem: temperature, water, sunlight, wind, rocks, and soil
abscisic acid (ABA)
Plant hormone that inhibits growth
an animal that has no true coelum eg. flatworms
protein that mainly makes up the thin filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells
movement of particles against a gradient, from low concentration to high concentration. This always requires the expenditure of energy
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
special high-energy molecule that stores energy for immediate use in the cell
roots that rise above the ground; examples are aerial roots and prop roots
the process by which certain cells convert pyruvic acid or pyruvate from glycolysis into ethl alcohol and carbon dioxide in the absence of oxygen
Different forms of a gene
Is an extra-embryonic membrane in a bird's egg. It exchanges respiratory gases to and from the embryo
microscopic air sac in the lung where diffusion of the respiratory gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs
Membrane that encloses the embryo in protective amniotic fluid
enzyme that digests starch
structures that do not have a common evolutionary origin but are similar in function
Abnormal number of chromosomes.
Anthophyta or flowering plants
A negatively charged ion
molecules that assist in photosynthesis by capturing a passing photons of light to chlorophyll a and expanding the range of light that can be used to produce sugar
ex/ chlorophyll b and carotenoids
Male part of flower where sperm (pollen) is produced by meiosis. Sits atop the filament
structures located on the tips of a gametophyte plant and produce sperm
Immunoglobins. Part of the third line of defense, the specific immune response. Each molecule is a Y shaped molecule consisting of four polypeptide chains
A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA.
foreign substances that trigger the attack of antibodies in the immune response.
programmed cell death
An intermediate fossil that shows both reptile and bird characteristics.
intermediate fossil that shows both reptile and bird characteristics
one type of learning in which one stimulus becomes linked to another through experience
structure in the membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts where ATP is formed
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the automatics functions such as heart and breathing rate
chromosomes not included in sex determination. humans typically have 44 in each body cell
An organism that makes its own food
Growth hormones in plants that are responsible for phototropisms and apical dominance, the preferential growth of a plant upward (toward the sun) rather than laterally.
Testcross. A technique to determine whether an individual plant or animal showing the dominant trait is homozygous dominant (BB) or heterozygous (Bb).
ability of bacteria to alter their genetic makeup by uptaking foreign DNA from another bacterial cell and incorporating it into their own - discovered by Griffith
A type of point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
most important buffer in human blood - keeps PH of the blood at 7.4
chemical produced in the liver and released from the gallbladder that emulsifies fats. It is not an enzyme.
system of taxonomy that is used today, developed by Carl von Linne. in this system, every organism has a two part name - homo sapien
Organisms at higher trophic levels have a greater concentration of accumulated toxins stored in their bodies than those at lower trophic levels.
the global ecosystem
the branch of science that uses recombinant DNA techniques for practical purposes, also called genetic engineering
includes all of the organisms with which an organism might react in an ecosystem.
the maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
natural disasters such as fire, earthquake, and flood reduce the size of a population nonselectively, resulting in a loss of genetic variation. The resulting population is much smaller and not representative of the original one. Certain alleles may be under or overrepresented compared with the original population.
splitting off of new individuals from existing ones. how reproduction occurs in hydra.
chemicals that resist a change in pH
modification for dry environments. C-4 plants exhibit modified anatomy and biochemical pathways, which enable them to minimize excessive water loss and maximize sugar production.
cyclical process that produces sugar. It occurs during the light-independent reactions.
crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
A form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation for dry conditions. These plants keep their stomates closed during the day and open at night, the reverse of how most plants behave.
The incorporation of carbon dioxide into a sugar. it occurs during the cyclical process called the Calvin Cycle
band of muscle at the top of the stomach that keeps acidified food in the stomach from backing up into the esophagus and burning it.
Photosynthetic antennae pigments. They are orange and yellow.
Female part of the flower, produce the female gametophytes, ova. Each carpel consists of an ovary, stigma, and style. Also called the pistil.
a limit to the number of individuals that can occupy one area at a particular time
Responsible for division of the cytoplasm in animal cells; they are not present in plant cells. They consist of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged in a circle.
The specialized region of the chromosome where two sister chromatids are most closely attached.
consist of two centrioles at right angles to each other. Important during cell division in animal cells.
This is how ATP is produced during oxidative phosphorylation. Protons only flow through the special ATP synthetase channels and transfer energy to molecules of ATP.
a polysaccharide that makes up the exoskeleton of insects and the cell walls of fungi
type of pastid that carries out photosynthesis
membrane that lies under the shell of an egg and allows for diffusion of respiratory gases between the outside environment and the inside of the shell.
DNA in the nucleus that is wrapped with special proteins called histones into a visible network
type of plastid that stores pigments that are responsible for the bright colors in fruit and flowers
type of associative learning eg. docs associating eating food with sound of bell - Pavlov
rapid mitotic cell division of the zygote that begins immediately after fertilization
Cells that house the stingers in cnidarians.
an inheritance pattern in which both alleles can be observed in a phenotype eg. in human a person who has 2 different genes for blood type, A and B, has type AB blood
three-nucleotide sequence on messenger RNA that codes for a single amino acid
An animal that possesses a true coelom (a body cavity). All chordates are coelomates.
vitamins that assist in the normal functioning of enzymes
the mutual evolutionary set of adaptations of two interacting species
Minerals that assist in the normal functioning of enzymes
The attraction of like molecules to stick together. water molecules tend to stick together because they exhibit strong cohesion tension.
Plant cells with unevenly thickened primary cell walls but lack secondary cell walls. The strings of celery consist of collenchyma cells.
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
consists of all the organisms living in one area
make up phloem vessels, along with sieve tube elements
a primitive form of sexual reproduction where individuals exchange genetic material
Continental Drift Theory
the theory that the continents have not always been in their present locations but have moved there over millions of years - Pangaea
structure found in freshwater protista, like paramecia and amoeba, that pumps out excess water that diffuses inward because the organisms live in an environment that is hypotonic.
a type of evolution that results in two different organisms looking physically very similar due to the fact that they were under the same type of environmental selection and not because they evolved from a common ancestor fairly recent in time eg. whale, a mammal and a fish
Specialized region in a plant root or stem for storage and support.
Food for the growing embryo in a dicot seed. The cells that make this up are triploid.
bonds formed between atoms where electrons are shared
series of inner membranes in mitochondria where cell respiration occurs
structure in birds, insects, and earthworms, among others, for temporary storage of food.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange genetic material. Crossover is important because it increases variation in the gametes.
waxy coating on the leaves that helps prevent excess water loss from the plant
Movement of cytoplasm around the cell
The most common lethal genetic disease in the United States; characterized by a buildup of extracellular fluid in the lungs and digestive tract
proteins that play a key role in electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms down the middle of the cell. In plant cells, a cell plate forms down the middle of the cell
Plant hormones that stimulate cell division and cytokinesis
the entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
semi-liquid portion of the cytoplasm
organisms that play a vital role in the ecosystem, recycling deal organic matter. eg. bacteria and fungi
Also known as synthesis. Process by which molecules are bonded together to form a larger molecule with the removal of water.
Mutation in which one or more nucleotides are lost
Characteristic of proteins; a change in shape that stops the protein from functioning.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose - the heritable material passed on from parent to offspring
Relaxation of the ventricles of the heart. Normal diastolic pressure is 120 mm Hg.
Plant whose seed easily breaks in two
Enzymatic breakdown, hydrolysis, of food so it is small enough to be assimilated into the body.
a molecule with Two amino acids bonded together
Changing environmental conditions give rise to this type of natural selection. One phenotype replaces another in the gene pool.
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration - two types: simple and facilitated
a type of natural selection in which two extreme forms of a trait are selected
occurs when a population becomes isolated from the rest of the species and becomes exposed to new selective pressures, causing it to evolve into a new species eg. homologous structures
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule during replication
organisms are classified in one of three domains, which are further classified into Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species
first portion of the small intestine where ALL digestion is completed
includes all of the organisms as well as the climate, soil, water, rocks, and other nonliving things in a given area
the outermost layer of an embryo, which develops into skin and nervous system
an animal whose body temperature varies with the temperature of its surroundings - cold blooded
removal of undigested waste
Electronic Transport Chain
a series of molecules within the cristae membrane of mitochondria that provides energy to phophorylate ADP into ATP
the innermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo which develop into viscera or the digestive system
system of transport channels within the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell
food for a growing embryo in a monocot seed
a warm-blooded animal that maintains a constant internal temperature
process by which a cell takes in molecules and particles by forming new vesicles made from plasma membrane. eg. pinocytosis, phagocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis.
energy of activation
the amount of energy required to start a reaction
a transition fossil that demonstrates that the ancient horse is an ancestor of the modern horse, Equus.
Part of the embryo in a seed that becomes the upper part of the stem and leaves
part of testes where sperm become motile
a flap of cartilage at the root of the tongue, that directs food to the esophagus
red blood cells
gaseous plant hormone that stimulates fruits to ripen
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles - opposite of prokaryotic cells
when an atom absorbs energy, its electrons move to a higher energy level
Process by which metabolic wastes are eliminated from the body
release of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
organisms that live in extreme environments eg. methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles
FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide)
A coenzyme that carries protons or electrons from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
fallopian tubes (oviduct)
in the female reproductive system; where fertilization happens
Anaerobic phase of cell respiration
threadlike structure that supports the anther in the male part of a flower
the strand of mRNA that is sent to the ribosome after processing. It is much shorter than the initial transcript.
Process that occurs in the nephron where nutrients and wastes diffuse from the glomerulus into Bowman's capsule
Division of an organism into two new cells. Reproduction in protists.
fixed action pattern
innate behavior that occurs as an unchangeable sequence of actions - initiated by external stimuli called sign stimuli
the pathway along which food energy is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
a single parent organism breaks into parts that regenerate into new individuals. Reproduction in sponges, planaria, and sea stars.
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
first sugar produced by photosynthesis
in primitive plants, a protective jacket of cells in which gametes and zygotes develop and which prevents drying out.
Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
Digestive hormone that stimulates sustained secretion of gastric juice from the stomach
primitive digestive cavity in hydra
the process in which a gastrula develops from a blastula by the inward migration of cells
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
Movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
A change in the gene pool of a population due to chance, eg bottleneck effect and founder effect
"biotechnology" uses recombinant DNA techniques for practical purposes
All the genetic information in an organism; all of an organism's chromosomes. human genome consists of 3BN base pairs of DNA and 30,000 genes.
genetic makeup of an organism
isolation between populations due to physical barriers eg. mountain ranges, canyons
plant hormones that promote stem and leaf elongation
where mechanical digestion occurs in birds, insects and earthworms
A gradual increase in average global temperature
A hormone secreted by the pancreatic alpha cells that increases blood glucose concentration
Combines with fatty acids to make lipids.
Glycolosis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain
anaerobic phase of aerobic respiration. one molecule of glucose breaks apart into two molecules of pyruvate
organelle made of membranous sacs that prepares and transports substances for the cell
The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
Membranes within chloroplasts that consist of thylakoid membranes and are the sites of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Carbon dioxide and water vapor in the air absorb much of the infrared radiation reflecting off Earth, causing the average temperature on Earth to rise.
gross primary productivity
amount of energy converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time in an ecosystem
Condition of an electron when it is not excited. It is in its lowest energy level.
Modified epithelium containing chloroplasts that control the opening and closing of the stomates by a change in shape
Conifers or cone-bearing plants
an organism's decreasing response to a stimulus with repeated exposure to it
amount of time required for half of a radioactive isotope to decay
"salt-loving" archaea that live in environments that have very high salt concentrations
An organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes.
heat of vaporization
the energy a substance must absorb in order to change from a liquid to a gas
The primary body cavity of most invertebrates, containing circulatory fluid
A hereditary disease where blood does not coagulate to stop bleeding
an organism that has both male and female reproductive organs
theory that the first cells on Earth were anaerobic, heterotrophic prokaryotes
organism that obtains energy from the foods it consumes; also called a consumer
having two different alleles for a trait
Chemical in the immune system that triggers dilation and increased permeability of capillaries. increases blood supply to an area.
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Endotherm. Animals that maintain a consistent body temperature. Examples are birds, mammals, and some reptiles.
same internal bone structure although function of each varies. eg. wing of bat, human arm - common ancestor
Genetic disorder that causes progressive deterioration of brain cells. caused by a dominant allele. symptoms do not appear until about the age of 30.
an intermolecular attraction between molecules that exert a strong pull on their electrons. This attraction keeps the two strands of a DNA molecule together.
Soluble in water. Either polar or ionic.
Insoluble in water. Nonpolar.
Having a higher concentration of solute than another solution.
Part of the developing embryo that will become the lower part of the stem and roots
major gland in brain that acts as bridge between endocrine and nervous systems
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
intake of nutrients
Strand of mRNA before it is processed. It is much longer than the final transcript.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene. can cause a frameshift
A protein hormone synthesized in the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels by facilitating the uptake of glucose into tissues
attractions between molecules eg. hydrogen bonding
Intervening, noncoding sequences of DNA located between genes
a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end
the bond between two oppositely charged ions
ability to respond to a stimulus
when the concentration of two solutions is the same
Noncoding regions of DNA. Most of the human genome consists of noncoding regions.
Procedure that analyzes the size, shape, and number of chromosomes
first step in areobic metabolism in mitochondria, which produces CO2;
aka citric-acid cycle and TCA cycle
Structures within the villi that line the small intestine and that absorb fatty acids and glycerol into the lymphatic system.
lactic acid fermentation
A series of anaerobic chemical reactions using pyruvic acid that supplies energy when oxygen is scarce
Law of Dominance
In many traits one allele is dominant over the other allele. The "weaker (recessive" allele is only expressed when it is paired with another recessive allele
law of independent assortment
the law that states that genes separate independently of one another in meiosis - the offspring will be hybrid but will exhibit only the dominant trait
Law of Segregation
During the formation of gametes, the traits carried on homologous chromosomes separate
Type of plastid that stores starch
white blood cells
part of photosynthesis that absorbs energy from sunlight and transfers energy to the light-independent reactions
factors that limit population growth
organic molecules made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but unlike carbohydrates, they will not dissolve in water. consists of glycerol plus 3 fatty acids
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Evolutionary change above the species level.
An excretory organ that is unique to insects, empties into digestive tract and removes nitrogenous wastes from the hemolymph
said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease
A cnidarian body plan characterized by a bowl shape and adapted for a free-swimming life.
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms that produces haploid gamete
cessation of menstruation
Plant tissue that is always dividing. An example is cambium tissue.
the middle layer of an embryo in early development, between the endoderm and ectoderm.
The middle layer of a two-layered animal, like sponges or hydra, which holds the two layers together.
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
All of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism
Prokaryotes that synthesize methane from carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas
Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
Made of the protein actin and help support the shape of the cell. They enable animal cells to form a cleavage furrow during cell division or the amoeba to move by sending out pseudopods.
Thick hollow tubes that make up the cilia, flagella, and spindle fibers.
thin layer between primary walls of adjacent plant cells
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use
cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Plant whose seed does not break into two parts
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
Egg laying mammals
A change in a gene or chromosome.
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
The symbiotic structures consisting of the plant's roots intermingled with the hyphae (filaments) of a fungus that greatly increase the quantity of nutrients that a plant can absorb
thick filaments in skeletal muscle
coenzyme that shuttles protons or electrons from glycolysis and krebs cycle to the electron transport chain
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