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37 terms

Chapter 2 & 3 - AP US Government & Politics - Schaffner

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unalienable
a human right based on nature or God
Articles of Confederation
a weak constitution that governed America during the Revolutionary War
Constitutional Convention
meeting in Philadelphia in 1787 that produced a new constitution
Shay's Rebellion
a 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary Wat soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes
Virginia Plan
proposal to create a strong national government
New Jersey Plan
proposal to create a weak national government
Great Compromise
plane to have a popularly elected House based on state population and a state-selected Senate, with two members for each state
republic
a government in which elected representatives make the decisions
judicial review
the power of the courts to declare laws unconstitutional
federalism
government authority shared by national and state government
checks and balances
authority shared by three branches of government
enumerated powers
powers given to the national government alone
reserved powers
powers given to the state government alone
concurrent powers
powers shared by the national and state governments
separation of powers
Constitutional authority is shared by three different branches of government
faction
a group with a distinct political interest
Federalists
those who favor a stronger national government
Antifederalists
those who favor a weaker national government
coalition
an alliance of factions
habeas corpus
an order to produce an arrested person before a judge
bill of attainder
a law that declares a person, without a trial, to be guilty of a crime
ex post facto law
a law that makes an act criminal although the act was legal when it was committed
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the Constitution
amendment
a new provision in the Constitution that has been ratified by the states
line-item veto
an executive's ability to block a particular provision in a bill passed by the legislature
devolution
the effort to transfer responsibility for many public programs and services from the fedeal government to the states
block grants
money from the national government that states can spend within broad guidelines determined by Washington
"necessary and proper" clause
section of the Constitution allowing Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to its duties, and which has permitted Congress to exercise powers not specifically given to it (enumerated) by the Constitution
nullification
the doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution
dual federalism
doctrine holding that the national government is supreme in its sphere, the states are supreme in theirs, and the two spheres should be kept separate
police power
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
initiative
process that permits voters to put legislative measures directly on the ballot
referendum
procedure enabling voters to reject a measure passed by the legislature
recall
procedure whereby voters can remove an elected official from office
grants-in-aid
money given by the national government to the states
conditions of aids
terms set by the national government that states must meet if they are to recieve certain federal funds
mandates
terms set by the national government that states must meet whether or not they accept federal grants