GCSE Geography A Unit 2 - Changing Urban Environments
In accordance with AQA syllabus.
Terms in this set (99)
What is Urbanisation?
A process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in towns of the cities (and there is reduction in rural areas).
What is Rural-Urban migration?
A process in which people move from the countryside to the town.
Where is Urbanisation occurring fastest and why is this?
Today, urbanisation is happening fastest in poorer countries. Urbanisation is caused by rural-urban migration and improved healthcare plus high birth rates in cities.
When was urbanisation rapid and what are the characteristics of it?
During the twentieth century urbanisation was very rapid especially in the cities in the poorer countries.
• Poorer countries now have most of the world's largest cities: Seoul, Tokyo, Shanghai and Mumbai. They have largest number of people living in the urban areas although its only 30% of their population.
• Richer countries still have the highest percentage of people who live in urban areas (about 70%).
• The greatest growth has been in the world's largest cities creating million cities (cities with over 1 million people) and megacities (over 10 million people).
What leads to urbanisation and why is this?
The rural to urban migration that leads to urbanisation is result of rural push and urban pull factors.
Why do people leave rural areas (push factors)?
They believe there are more opportunities in the city than there really are because of the sources of their information which include:
- What they hear on the radio and from newspapers.
- What they learn from friends or relatives who have already moved.
- These people often exaggerate as they want to appear successful to others. This encourages others to follow them in the rural-urban migration.
What attracts them to the city (pull factors)?
Poor rural standards of living make people want to better for themselves and their children. Rural areas often lack opportunities for improvement. Agricultural systems have evolved over centuries and they work well as long as the population does not grow too large.
How do rural areas benefit from this migration flow?
The main aim is to improve the economic situation of individuals and their extended family. Migrants send money home to those remaining in the villages. This can be used to improve farming - increasing livestock, buying new tools or better seed - or to help the family by paying school fees.
When did Urbanisation in Richer Countries occur?
Began during the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century
Draw a diagram showing how urbanisation in richer countries occurred.
Draw a diagram showing how urbanisation in poorer countries occurred.
Why urbanisation is happening rapidly in poorer countries?
• Rural to urban migration, a result of both push and pull factors
• High rates of natural increases among the youthful population of these cities
• The concentration of industry and all other modern economic activities, making the cities a natural magnet for young people looking for work.
How can Urban areas can be split into parts?
Urban areas can be split into 4 main parts:
- The Central Business District (CBD)
- The Inner City
- The Suburbs
- The Rural-Urban Fringe
What is Urban Morphology?
Arrangement of land use in an urban area, usually in district zone.
What are the urban land uses? And how are these ordered?
Shops, industries, offices, settlements (towns and cities). Each type of land use usually clusters together to give distinctive zones such as the CBD, where shops and offices are concentrated. Other zones are formed industrial areas and the vast suburban housing areas.
What is Morphology the term for?
Morphology is the term used to describe the internal structure of a city.
Draw the Burgess model.
Where do cities grow outward from? And what does this mean?
Cities grow outwards from the original site and hence property becomes younger as the outskirts of the town are reached. The original site is generally where the CBD is located today.
Where is land most expensive and why?
Land costs are highest in the CBD where land is in short supply and traditionally accessibility is greatest. Only high-profit making businesses can afford to locate in the CBD. Away from the city centre, costs decrease and more land is available, allowing industries and housing to locate here.
Draw a diagram showing the varying price in the CBD
How accessible is the CBD?
The CBD has traditionally been the easiest place in the city to reach. This is because most road and local routes meet here and so it is equally accessible to people from all places, the edge of a city is accessible for local people but not to those who live on the opposite side of that urban area.
What was the sequence of urban development?
When many British towns began to expand last century, the main demand for land came from industry and housing. Present day demands are for industry and housing in pleasant environments, shopping and open space. These have to locate on the edge of cities as land nearer the centre has already been used.
What is a function?
The purpose of a particular area e.g. for housing (residential) shopping (retail).
What is land use?
The types of building or other features that are found in the area e.g. terraced housing, industrial estates.
How do you recognise a CBD?
- In the city centre.
- Original settlement site but now there is a very low residential population.
- Old buildings e.g. town hall.
- Route focus for road and rail. Rail and bus stations on edge.
- Car parks, shops, offices and entertainment facilities.
- High density of buildings, some high rise. High cost for land and buildings
How do you recognise the Inner city?
- Location outside CBD, grew during industrial revolution.
- Terraced housing. Other houses being developed e.g. High rise buildings.
- Old industries, rivers and railways.
- Straight Roads.
- Corner shops, churches, schools and Victorian parks.
Draw a layout of inner city housing.
How do you recognise the Suburbs?
- Location: Outskirts or edge of the built up area
- Residential housing areas. E.g. Semi-detached housing, detached, flats and bungalows. Density of housing decreases outwards.
- More expensive, modern housing found on outskirts.
- Open public space and bigger gardens.
- Roads straight and curves houses in Cul-de-sacs.
- Garage/double garage.
- Industrial estates with modern factories on edge.
Draw a layout of Suburban housing.
Draw a diagram of Urban zones in LEDC cities.
What are the characteristics of Zones in LEDC cities?
How are CBD's similar in MEDC's and LEDC's?
Both have high-rise buildings, shops.
How are CBD's different in MEDC's and LEDC's?
What are the Social problems of the CBD?
What are the Environmental problems of the CBD?
- Air Pollution
What are the Economic problems of the CBD?
- Closure of Shops
- Fewer shoppers
- Office space vacated
Case Study: Birmingham, an example of a city with problems with urban living.
Notes on Birmingham an example of a city problems with urban living.
Problems of the CBD
How have problems of the Mailbox been solved?
1) The Mailbox was once the Royal Mail's Sorting Office and was left empty when they moved out. It now contains over 40 specialist shops such as Harvey Nichols and 2 Hotels. This encourages people back into the CBD for work and shopping and the hotels will encourage tourists and business visitors.
How have problems of the Bullring been solved?
2) The Bullring has been rebuilt and is now a prestigious shopping centre within the CBD. This provides competition with out-of-town shopping areas, containing 140 shops including Selfridges. Over 35 million people visited the Bullring in its first year.
How have congestion, health and safety problems been solved?
3) Congestion, health and safety problems have been solved by pedestrianizing shopping streets. The quality of the environment has also been enhanced. New Street is just one area of the CBD where trees have been planted, lighting improved and street furniture and dustbins provided.
Inner City problems
What are the Environmental problems?
• Housing is either old terraces on tower blocks.
• Many derelict buildings (factories, warehouses churches and flats) are often vandalised.
• Shortage of open space; most of what exists is wasteland.
What are the Social problems?
• Above average numbers of pensioners, single-parent families, ethnic minorities and students.
• Poorer than average level of health but higher than average levels of drug abuse and crime.
• Difficult police-community relationship.
What are the Economic problems?
• Local employments declined as industries and docks closed.
• Higher than average rates of unemployment especially for the young and ethnic minorities.
• High cost of land compared with suburbs
How do you solve the problems of the inner city?
Large scale projects where redevelopment happened with the help of both public and private investment e.g. London's Dockland.
CASE STUDY: London's Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC)
Notes on the LDDC and London Dockland's
Why did the docklands decline?
• River Thames silted up and boats become larger.
• General decline in manufacturing and the idea of containerization meant that portside industries such as food refining closed down and less people were needed.
• Sub-standard and low-quality housing such as tower blocks were built in 1950s and 1960s. These were built to replace the damaged housing by bombs in WW2.
• Docks built downstream e.g. Tilbury.
How long was the LDDC at work for? When did it publish its final annual report?
The LDDC was at work for 17 years. In its final annual report in 1998
What did the report headline?
• Almost 2 billion in public sectors investment and 8 billion in private sector investment.
• 431 hectares of land sold for development. - 2.3km2 of commercial/ industrial floor space built.
• 144 km of new and improved roads.
• The construction of the Docklands Light Railway.
• 762 hectares of derelict land reclaimed.
• 24 thousand new homes built.
• 2,700 business trading - 85,000 people now at work in Docklands.
• Contributions to 5 new health centres and the redevelopment of 6 more.
• Funding towards 25 educational related facilities
What is City Challenge?
A strategy in which local authorities had to design a scheme and submit bid for funding, competing against other councils. They also had to become part of a partnership involving the local community and private companies who would fund part of the development.
CASE STUDY: An example of city challenge: Hulme, Manchester
Notes on Hulme, Manchester
What did Hulme receive through city challenge?
• Crescents were built in the 1960s and demolished in the 1990s.
• Through City Challenge Hulme received £37.5 million.
• Same old buildings were retained.
• Homes were designed to conserve water and be energy efficient and pleasant.
• The views of local people were taken into account.
• Local schools and a new park have been built.
What is a sustainable community?
Community offering housing, employment and recreation opportunities that is broadly in balance with the environment and offers people a good quality of life.
CASE STUDY: New Islington Millennium Village Manchester, an example of a sustainable community.
Notes on New Islington Millennium Village Manchester.
What are the housing plans for New Islington Millennium Village?
• 66 houses, 200 ground-floor apartments.
• 500 two and three storey apartments.
• 34 urban barns.
What are the plans for waterways?
• 12 Bridges.
• 3 giant canopies.
• 3000m of canopies.
What urban amenities are going to be on offer?
• 10 new shops.
• 2 pubs, 2 restaurants, cafes and bar.
• Parks and Gardens.
• 300 new trees.
• 2 garden islands, an orchard, a beach.
What are the plans for community facilities?
• 2 Workshops
• A crèche
What is the Sustainability Agenda for the village?
• Boreholes will provide up to 25 litres per second of naturally filtered water.
• Central heating power to 600kw electrical energy and 1,000 kW thermal energy.
Traffic Congestion and Pollution
Notes on Traffic Congestion and Pollution
Why there are problems of traffic congestion and pollution in cities?
• Many people own cars for flexibility so there are lots of cars therefore on-street parking therefore risk of accidents.
• Buses and Taxis. Public transport is old, polluting and inflexible.
• Too many people in small area..
• Many people (commuters) travel at same times during day (rush hour).
• Slow traffic - Speed bumps slow down the movement of vehicles and bridges only cross river at one point and Traffic lights. Roads are now too narrow to cope with today's traffic.
What problems are created by traffic?
• Impact health- respiratory conditions, asthma
• Buildings discolour
• Noise from heavy vehicles
• Air pollution
Give examples of general things done to overcome traffic.
• Improving public transport and parking charges to dissuade car usage
What does Park and Ride involve and what are its advantages and disadvantages?
- Don't need to worry about parking space
- Roads are unsuitable for modern traffic
What do Bus lanes involve and what are their advantages and disadvantages?
• Pollution has been reduced in central area.
• Buses on time.
• Requires additional land for bus lanes
What do Oyster cards involve and what are their advantages and disadvantages?
E.g. London they are top-up tube and train tickets.
• Reduces ticket queue
• Travelling in London has increased
• Over 34 million issued in 2010 and over 7 million used regularly
• Queues very long as limited number of ticket booths
• Got hacked (security issue)
• People lose jobs as less people needed for buying ticket
What does the Central London Congestion Charge involve and what is its advantages and disadvantages?
E.g. Central London, charges people for driving in London
• £70 million made 1st year
• £97 made 2nd year Congestion reduced by 30%
• £200 million to set up
• £115 million a year
• 30% of businesses within area reported drop in trade
Case Study: Birmingham an example of Cultural Mix
Notes on Birmingham and its Cultural mix
What do cities attract? And what does this lead to?
Cities attract migrants, resulting in great ethnic diversity. However, there is a tendency for people form similar backgrounds to cluster together. This can lead to tension and even violence.
What is segregation?
When people of particular ethnic groups choose to live with others from the same ethnic group, separating themselves from other groups.
Why do people choose to cluster together?
• Support from others (safe and secure, protection from racial abuse).
• A familiar culture (Same language, beliefs and ideas).
• Specialist Facilities (Muslims in a mosque).
• Safety in numbers.
• Employment factors.
What measures have been taken to reduce segregation in Birmingham?
• Increasing child achievement by improving education provision; improving literacy and where English can be a second language.
• Increasing employment through initiatives to ensure basic skills.
• Providing facilities that encourage meets of community.
• Increasing community involvement.
What strategies have been implemented to reduce ethnic segregation?
• Make sure everyone can access information about services- e.g. print leaflets in a variety of languages.
• Improve communication between all parts of community e.g. involving leaders of ethnic communities when making decisions.
• Providing interpreters in places like hospitals and police stations.
• Make sure there are suitable services for different cultures - e.g. provide same sex doctors.
• Actively recruiting police so that they reflect the ethnic diversity of the communities they serve
What was introduced in 2005 to help immigrants?
A written exam for migrants applying for British citizenship. It is hoped that studying for the test will help people to share in British Values and traditions and therefore integrate more easily.
What has the government estimated about the demand for more housing?
It has been estimated by the Government that 4.4 million new homes will be needed in England by the year 2016.
What are the reasons for more homes being needed?
• People are living longer which means more houses are needed by the elderly.
• People are marrying later and want their own home as a single person when they leave their parents' home.
• More marriage are ending in divorce so two homes are needed instead of one.
• People want to live in or near the countryside.
What is a Greenfield site?
Land that has not been built on before usually in the countryside on the edge of the built-up area.
What are the reasons why we should build on Greenfield sites?
• New sites do not need clearing so can be cheaper to prepare.
• No restrictions of existing road network.
• Pleasant countryside environment may appeal to potential home owners.
• Some shops and business parks on outskirts provide local facilities.
• Land cheaper on outskirt land so plot larger.
• More space for gardeners.
What are Brownfield sites?
Land that has been built before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city.
What are the reasons why we should build on Brownfield sites?
• Easier to get planning permission as councils want to see brownfield sites used.
• Sites in cities are not left derelict and/or empty.
• Utilities such as water and electricity are already provided.
• Roads already exist.
• Near to facilities in town centres e.g. shops, entertainment and placed of work
• Good for commuting.
What is it like to get housing in London?
In London there is a shortage of housing resulting in very high property prices. It is difficult for people whom earn average wages to rent or buy their own property.
What strategies help fix the housing shortage
• A government policy of building new houses in old industrial areas (brownfield sites). This increases the amount of land available to developers
• Developers have to build a mix of private low cost and social housing in new development
• In some areas 1960s council flats have been upgraded to provide homes for essential workers like teachers and nurses.
What is the speed of Urbanisation in poorer countries and what does this lead to?
The speed of the urbanisation process in many poorer areas of the world result in squatter settlements being built and the evolution of an informal sector of the economy.
Pace of rural-urban migration is too fast to allow the time needed to build proper houses and for the economy to grow to provide jobs.
People make makeshift shelters. People create their own employment: selling items, becoming couriers, cleaning gardeners, taking in laundry.
What are squatter settlements?
Areas of cities (usually on the outskirts) that are built by people of any material they can find on land that doesn't belong to them. Such settlements have different names in different parts of the world (e.g. Favelas in Brazil) are often known as Shanty Towns.
What is the Informal sector?
That part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (e.g. taking in washing, mending bicycles) and which are not recognised in official figures.
What are the characteristics of a squatter settlement?
• In many cities in the poorer world, a shortage of affordable housing meaning that people build their own homes forming squatter settlements.
• They are often built on steep land (landslide risk) next to rivers (flood risk) or on the very outskirts of cities.
• Shelters are built from a variety of scrap materials including wood, plastic and corrugated metal
• Squatter settlements are illegal and some governments regularly bulldoze them to the ground.
What are the problems of a squatter settlement?
• No basic infrastructure e.g. piped water, electricity.
• Large families in small shacks and overcrowded.
• Haphazard housing.
• No Toilets.
• Water needs to be collected.
• Rubbish isn't collected - quickly generates filth and disease.
• Lack of money makes improvements difficult.
• Children don't go to school - no education.
• No privacy - families live on top of each other.
What does consolidating a squatter settlement consist of?
Over a number of decades, squatter settlements are transformed into permanent settlements. Residents slowly upgrade them, replacing scrap materials with brick and concrete to create solid buildings with several floors. Rainwater is caught in a tank on a roof. Electricity is added (often illegally by tapping into a nearby source).
What do local authorities do to help the residents?
Sometimes known as assisted help (ASH), this is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance in the form of loans or grants and often installing water, sanitations etc.
What are site and services schemes?
Occurs where land is divided into individual plots and water, sanitations electricity and basic track layout are supplied before any building by residents begins.
What local governments do to help?
Local governments may try to improve squatter settlements by improving the infrastructure, providing healthcare and education, organising waste removal, improving policing and encourage businesses. (Local Authority Schemes)
CASE STUDY of Squatter Re-development: The Favela - Bairro Project
Notes on the Re-development: The Favela - Bairro Project.
What does the project do? And when did it start? And what does it involve?
The Favela- Biarro Project helps people in Rio de Janeiro's Favelas in South East Brazil. The project started in 1995. It involves 235,000 people in 73 favelas and is being extended to help even more people.
Where does the funding come from?
40% of the $300 million funding for the project came from the local authority. The rest came from an international organisation called the Inter-American Development bank.
What are the social improvements?
• Day-care centres and after-school schemes to look after children while their parents are at work
• Adult education classes to improve adult literacy.
• Services to help people affected by drug addiction, alcohol addiction and domestic violence.
What are the economic improvements?
• Residents can now apply to legally own their properties.
• Training schemes to help people learn new skills so they can find better jobs and earn more.
What are the environmental improvements?
• Replacement of wooden buildings with brick buildings and the removal of home on dangerous steep slopes.
• Widening and paving of streets to allow easier access (especially for emergency services)
• Provision of basic services such as clean water, electricity and weekly rubbish collection.
What does the project do for community involvement?
• Residents choose which improvement they want in their favela so they feel involved.
• Neighbourhood associations are formed to communicate with the residents and make decisions.
• The new services are staffed by residents, providing income and helping them learn new skills.
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