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Mod 1: eukaryotes
Terms in this set (18)
What is the fundamental structure of a eukaryotic cell membrane?
- phospholipid bilayer w/ embedded proteins
- contains cholesterol for membrane maintenance
- 2 lipid bilayers (inner +outer)
What is meant by 'semipermeable membrane' (selectively permeable)?
Membrane controls movement of materials in/out of nucleus
How does the structure (and chemistry) of the cell membrane relate to its property of being semipermeable?
What are some of the functions of membrane-bound proteins?
- cell/cell communication
- molecule transport
= process by which secretory vesicles release their contents OUT of the cell
Ex: mast cells releasing histamine
= process by which cells uptake matter through the plasma membrane
What are phagocytosis and pinocytosis?
Which one forms a vacuole?
Which one forms a vesicle?
Both are a type of endocytosis
- Phagocytosis = "cell eating", forms VACUOLE
- Pinocytosis = "cell drinking", forms VESICLE
What is the function of the nucleus?
- to store DNA, thereby controlling its function
- Reproduction + heredity
= a vesicle formed around a particle engulfed by a phagocyte
What is the function of a lysosome?
What system is it a part of?
Lysosomes contain digestive enzymes needed for particle breakdown
- Part of endomembrane system
What is the function of the RER?
contains ribosomes needed for protein synthesis
What is the function of the Smooth ER?
lipid synthesis, carb metabolism, cell detox
What is the size of ribosomes in the RER & cytoplasm?
What is the size of ribosomes in chloroplasts & mitochondria?
Why are plant cells resistant to lysis?
They have a cell wall that resists changes in osmotic pressure
What is the fundamental difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
- Eukaryotes have membrane bound nucleus
- Prokaryotes have nucleoid
Describe the endosymbiotic theory of mitochondrial evolution. What evidence supports this theory?
- presence of a double membrane in mitochondria & chloroplasts
What is the common function of flagella and cilia in eukaryotes?
What is the function of fimbriae & pili?
flagella/ cilia = locomotion, motility
fimbriae/ pili = attachment
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