APUSH Chapter 22


Terms in this set (...)

panama canal
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa. It cost $400,000,000 to build. Columbians would not let Americans build the canal, but then with the assistance of the United States a Panamanian Revolution occurred. The new ruling people allowed the United States to build the canal.
canal zone
a 10 mile strip of land along the panama canal, once governed by the U.S
square deal
Name of TD's programs of reform. Focused on busting trusts, gov't regulation of big biz, fair chance for labor, and environmental conservation. everyone equal!
New Nationalism
Theodore Roosevelt's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Nationalism called for a national approach to the country's affairs and a strong president to deal with them. It also called for efficiency in government and society; it urged protection of children, women, and workers; accepted "good" trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. Additionally, it encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor.
New Freedom
Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
"speak softly, but carry a big stick"
Phrase made from TR Speech. (If we neogiate but keep strong army ready) Cannot be a good army without strong army
open door
the policy of granting equal trade opportunities to all countries
yellow peril
the threat to Western civilization said to arise from the power of Asiatic peoples
great white fleet
1907-1909 - Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the "Gentlemen's Agreement."
roosevelt corollary
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
dollar diplomacy
Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
Department of Commerce and Labor
TR est. this dept armed with the Bureau of Corporations meant to probe businesses engaged in interstate commerce and clearing the road for trust-busting era
northern securities company
A giant conglomerate of railroads that had a monopoly over the Great Northern and Northern Pacific lines; President Theodore Roosevelt ordered the company broken up in 1902, and it was dissolved by the Supreme Court in 1904. violated sherman antitrust act. jp morgan and hill.
senator robert LaFollette
governor from wisconsin who avidly opposed trusts
gifford pinchot
Forest Service, felt Ballinger had shown special preference to the purchasing group, protested to a congressional committee then was fired by Taft
john muir
A naturalist and conservationist. Founded the Sierra Club.
george perkins marsh
Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his classic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
JP Morgan
Had made a legendary reputation for himself and his Wall Street banking house by financing the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks, He did not believe that "money power" was dangerous
progressive party
Also known as the "Bull Moose Party", this political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt in an attempt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in the election of 1912. After Taft won the Republican Party's nomination, Roosevelt ran on the Progressive party ticket.
woodrow wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
colonel edward house
Aide of Woodrow Wilson in his attempts in 1915 and 1916 to mediate an end to the European conflict.
louis brandeis
A lawyer and jurist, he created the "Brandeis Brief," which succinctly outlines the facts of the case and cites legal precedents, in order to persuade the judge to make a certain ruling. JEW.
porfirio diaz
a dictator who dominated Mexico, permitted foriegn companies to develop natural resources and had allowed landowners to buy much of the countries land from poor peasants
pancho villa
mexican revolutionary who killed many americans in mexico. The United States sent John J Pershing to capture him but never did.
pinchot-ballinger controversy
(WT) Pinchot found out that Ballinger had taken a series of 'no-bid' contracts out (to friends, with the promise of substantial kickbacks to Ballinger) companies intent on mining coal on federally protected land. Pinchot went to Taft, Teddy Roosevelts hand picked successor, and informed him. Taft basically told Pinchot that it was ok, and that the contracts would be allowed to stand. This caused a heated argument between Pinchot and Taft with Pinchot getting fired by the President.
portsmouth conference
The meeting between Japan, Russia, and the U.S. that ended the Russo-Japanese War in 1905. Roosevelt won the Nobel Peace Prize for stopping the fighting between those two countries.
17th amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
hepburn railroad regulation act
Gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
national reclamation act
backed by Roosevelt in 1902, it provided federal funds for the construction of damns, reservoirs, and canals in the West—projects that would open new lands for cultivation and provide cheap electric power later on.
payne-aldrich tariff
Signed by Taft in March of 1909 in contrast to campaign promises. Was supposed to lower tariff rates but Senator Nelson N. Aldrich of Rhode Island put revisions that raised tariffs. This split the Repulican party into progressives (lower tariff) and conservatives (high tariff).
underwood simmons tariff
1914, lowered tariff, substantially reduced import fees. Lost tax revenue would be replaced with an income tax that was implemented with the 16th amendment. (wilson)
16th amendment
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
federal reserve act
Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by government banks.
federal trade commission act
This law authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meatpackers. The commissioners were expected to crush monopolies at the source.
clayton antitrust act
(WW) 1914, New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions, also made labor unions not dependent on antilaws
keating-owen act
Prohibited the sale of interstate commerce goods produced by children (wilson)
hay-pauncefote treaty
(TR) , negotiations with Colombia, six mile strip of land in Panama, $10 million, US could dig canal without British involvement
elkin's act
aimed primarily at reducing abuse of rebates used by railroads