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Anatomy Vocab chapter 14

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Appendicitis*
Inflammation of the appendix
Bile
a greenish-yellow or brownish fluid produced in and secreted by the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and released into the small intestine.
bolus
a rounded mass of food prepared by the mouth for swallowing.
chyme
Partially digested, semiliquid food mixed with digestive enzymes and acids in the stomach.
Cirrhosis
a chronic disease of the liver, characterized by an overgrowth of connective tissue or fibrosis.
Constipation
Condition characterized by difficulty in passing stool or an infrequent passage of hard stool
Diarrhea
An abnormal, frequent discharge of fluid fecal matter from the bowel
Diverticulosis
Abnormal condition of small pouches in the lining of the intestines.
Esophagus
A muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach.
Gallbladder
the sac beneath the right lobe of the liver used for bile storage.
Gastric gland
glands of the mucosa of the stomach that secrete HCl and hydrolytic enzymes (primarily pepsinogen, the inactive form of pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme), which begins the enzymatic, or chemical breakdown of protein foods.
Heartburn:
burning pain in the chest occurring when part of the stomach contents escapes into the esophagus
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver
Jaundice
an accumulation of bile pigments in the blood producing a yellow color of the skin.
Large intestine
The last section of the digestive system, where water is absorbed from food and the remaining material is eliminated from the body. About 6 feet long and is composed of the cecum, colon, rectum and anus.
Liver
A large solid organ that lies in the right upper quadrant immediately below the diaphragm; it produces bile, stores glucose for immediate use by the body, and produces many substances that help regulate immune responses., Breaks down toxins, such as alcohol and processes nutrients into forms easier for the rest of your body to use.
Pancreas
gland posterior to the stomach, between the spleen and the duodenum; produces both endocrine and exocrine secretions.
Peristalsis
the waves of contraction seen in tubelike organs; propels substances along the tract.
Polyp
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
Rugae
elevations or ridges, as in the mucosa of the stomach
Salivary Gland
Glands of the mouth that produce saliva, a digestive secretion
Small Intestine
Digestive organ where most chemical digestion and absorption of food takes place, Digestion and absorption of food occurs in the small intestine. Here, food is acted on by various enzymes from the small intestine and pancreas and by bile from the liver.
Ulcer
An open sore or lesion in the skin or mucous membrane; may cause periodic bleeding and the formation of scars.
Urea
the main nitrogen-containing waste excreted in the urine
Villi
fingerlike projections of the small intestinal mucosa that tremendously increase its surface area for absorption.