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Terms in this set (76)
Bell-shaped and S-shaped Curves
An S-shaped curve can be obtained simply by adding up the probabilities from a bell-shaped curve.
In a bell-shaped curve, the Y-axis is probability.
In an S-shaped curve, the Y-axis is cumulative probability.
the process by which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among the members of a social system.
an idea, practice, or object perceived as new. The more novel the innovation, the slower the diffusion.
the process by which a consumer begins to buy and use a new good, service, or idea.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) is exposed to an innovation's existence and gains some understanding of how it functions.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) forms a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward the innovation.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) engages in activities that lead to a choice to adopt or reject the innovation.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) puts an innovation into use.
An individual (or other decision-making unit) seeks reinforcement of an innovation-decision already made, or reverses a previous decision to adopt or reject the innovation if exposed to conflicting messages about the innovation.
Risk takers who are willing to try an unproven product.
Have financial resources to absorb unprofitable innovations.
Visionaries who are respected for their willingness to try new innovations.
Seek greater knowledge of innovations.
More highly connected in social systems.
Prefer to deliberate before making a decision.
Careful consumers who tend to avoid risk.
Rely on recommendations from others who have experience with the product.
Skeptical, conservative, and cautious — even after others embrace the innovation.
Wait until the rest of the community has adopted it first.
Adopt only when certain the technology will not fail, or when forced to change.
Traditional — don't see a need to change.
Tied to the past — reluctant to try new things.
the threshold or critical point at which an idea, product, or message takes off or reaches critical mass.
Belief that one will succeed in adopting and performing an innovation
"Can I do it"
The degree to which one desires to be the first to have and use an innovation
Latest hairstyles, new fashions, new technologies
The degree to which an innovation is perceived as better than the thing it is replacing.
The degree to which an innovation is perceived as being consistent with the existing values, past experiences, and needs of potential adopters.
The degree to which an innovation is perceived as difficult to understand or to use.
The degree to which an innovation can be experimented with on a limited basis and if necessary discarded without undue costs.
The degree to which an innovation's results are visible and measurable
Hypodermic Needle / Bullet Theory
This view implied that mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on viewers, like a drug injected into one's bloodstream or a bullet entering one's body
Payne Fund Studies
13 studies found that media had a lasting impact on racial attitudes, health, moral standards, emotions, and delinquent behaviors.
Invasion from Mars!
High confidence in the medium
Breaking news format
Use of real places
Tuning in late
Uses and Gratifications Approach
Changes the basic question about media's role
Used to be: "What do media do to us?"
Now: "What do we do with the media?
We decide how to interpret
We decide how to respond
Level of TV viewing ---> beliefs about the world
The Mean World Syndrome
The world presented on TV is violent—much more violent than in the real world.
Heavy TV viewers will encounter this violence and adopt a mindset that the world is more violent than it actually is.
This effect is enhanced if heavy TV viewing is combined with limited interaction in the real world
Over time, heavy TV viewers begin to adopt a similar view of the world.
This worldview focuses on a need for safety and security
Cultivation effects are greater when what you see on TV is similar to what you see in the real world. (Mugging example)
the idea that the news media determine the issues the public thinks about and talks about.
Reaffirmed the power of the press, while still maintaining that individuals were free to choose.
The pattern of news coverage across major print and broadcast media, as measured by the prominence and length of stories.
The most important public issues, as measured by public opinion surveys.
The issues policy makers are paying serious attention to at any given time.
Tendency of an issue to impact people in their daily lives.
Public agenda setting is more likely for unobtrusive issues
Need for orientation
Combination of interest in an issue and high levels of uncertainty about that issue.
Public agenda setting is more likely for individuals who are high in need for orientation
ensures most important stories make the news. creates false balance, and creates content that does not properly fulfill news functions
People value a certain gain more than a probable gain with an equal (or even greater) expected value; the opposite is true for losses.
refers to how information is presented to others
Communication Accommodation Theory
When we talk with other people, we will tend to subconsciously change our style of speech (accent, rate, types of words, etc.) towards the style used by the listener.
We also tend to match non-verbal behaviors.
A strategy of adapting your communication behavior so that it becomes similar to another person's
The strategy of accentuating the differences between your communication behavior and another person's.
Often used to preserve one's ingroup identity.
Social Identity Theory
a person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships.
The groups we belong to are an important source of pride and self-esteem.
To increase our self-image, we enhance the status of the groups we belong to.
Communicator's predisposition to focus on either their individual identity or group identity during a conversation
Collectivistic cultural context
Will regard stranger from another land a member of homogenous outgroup and assume these outsiders will respond the same way.
Distressing history of interaction
If previous interaction was distressing, people will tend to ascribe outcome to other person's social identity.
The more specific and negative images people have of an outgroup, the more likely they are to think of the other in terms of social identity and resort to divergent communication.
Image of the self that people display in their conversations with others.
Favorable social impression that a person wants to make on others.
Public expression of the inner self.
The theory explains how people from different cultures engage in face maintenance (self-face, mutual-face, and other-face)
In individualist cultures, ingroup members ("us") are perceived to be heterogeneous whereas outgroup members ("them") are perceived to be homogenous. In collectivist cultures, the opposite is true.
A process in which members of one cultural group adopt the beliefs and behaviors of another group.
refers to an individual's sense of self in relation to others.
Two types: independent and interdependent
View the self as stable and separate from interpersonal context
Value self-promotion, autonomy, assertiveness, and uniqueness
Tend to come from individualistic cultures
See the self as more flexible and intertwined with the social context
Value maintaining group harmony and fitting in
Tend to come from collectivistic cultures
Worldview: Things exist by themselves and can be defined by their attributes (context independent, object-oriented).
Worldview: Things are inter-related. Various factors are involved in an event (context dependent, context-sensitive).
Specific ways that we construct or repair face.
Face-restoration: Protecting your own autonomy.
Face-saving: Protecting the autonomy of another person.
Face-assertion: Protecting your own need for inclusion.
Face-giving: Protecting another's need for inclusion.
Conflict Management Styles
Obliging: Accommodating or giving in to the wishes of another in a conflict situation.
Compromising: A give and take strategy that involves negotiating and seeking a middle way.
Avoiding: Responding to a conflict by withdrawing from open discussion.
Integrating: Problem solving through open discussion; collaborating for a win-win resolution of conflict.
Third party help: Disputing parties seek the aid of a mediator, arbitrator, or respected neutral party to help them resolve their differences.
Emotional expression: Managing conflict by disclosure or venting of feelings
Passive aggression: Making indirect accusations, showing resentment, procrastination, and other behaviors aimed at thwarting another's resolution of conflict.
Dominating: Competing to win when people's interests conflict.
Gender Differences in Independence vs. Connectedness
Females tend to be interdependent or connected, whereas males tend to be independent.
Harming another person's relationships, feelings of acceptance, or inclusion in a group
Gender Differences in Aggression
Gender differences culminate in dramatic differences in violent behavior in young adulthood, reflected in violent crime rates. Males commit 82% of violent crimes and 68% of property crimes.
When it comes to heterosexual domestic partners, women are slightly more likely than men to use physical aggression against their partners
a term suggesting that masculine and feminine styles of discourse best viewed as two distinct cultural dialects
Rapport talk vs. report talk
Rapport talk: Typical conversational style of women, which seeks to establish connection with others.
Report talk: Typical monologic style of men, which seeks to command attention, convey information, and win arguments.
The male sex hormone. It is a simple chemical arrangement of carbon rings, a derivative of the molecule cholesterol.
Males and females have testosterone, but males have 9-10 times more of it.
Females can be as aggressive as males when role constraints prohibiting aggression are removed
The androgynous individual is high in masculinity AND high in femininity. For example, he or she can be soft-spoken, sympathetic, and gentle with children, but aggressive, dominant, and forceful at work.
Those who are high in masculine traits are better adjusted.
Those who are high in feminine traits are better adjusted.
Those high in both are the best adjusted.
ABCs of Disliking Others
Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits.
Stereotypes refer to what we believe or think about various groups.
Process of sorting people on the basis of common attributes (e.g., gender, ethnic background, age, religion, sexual orientation, weight)
Outgroup Homogeneity Bias
The tendency to assume that there is greater similarity among outgroup members than among ingroup members (e.g., "they all look alike")
People overestimate the link between variables that are related only slightly or not at all.
Ultimate Attribution Error
People have a bias to attribute another person's behavior to internal or dispositional causes (e.g., personality traits, attitudes) to a much greater extent than they should.
Negative attitude or feeling toward people simply because of their membership in certain groups.
Unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong.
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