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CLEP Principles of Marketing - Consumer Decision Making
Terms in this set (61)
the process consumers go through when they make purchases and it involves factors that influence their decision and usage.
consumer decision-making process
involves five steps that consumers move through when buying a good or service.
occurs when a consumer is faced with a difference between an actual and a desired state.
Marketers want to create an imbalance in consumers between
their present status and their preferred status.
When consumers recognize an unfulfilled need and that a product will satisfy it,
ways of recognizing unfulfilled wants
frustration with a product, running out of a product, aware of a product that is better
comparing different alternative selections that they can purchase to satisfy their need
internal information search
consists of utilizing information from memory, such as past experiences with the product.
external information search
is the process of seeking information in the outside environment.
A product info source that originates w/ marketers promoting the product. (such as radio, television ads, brochures, etc. )
set of most preferred alternatives
product attribute examples
quality, price, location, option, etc
the inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior, value and opinions (restaurant meal choice)
cognitive dissonance can be eliminated by
providing a consumer with a informed decision, offering guarantees, post purchase support (customer service calls), consumer justifying decision to friends and family
consumer decision-making process steps
Need recognition, information search, evaluations of alternatives, purchase and post-purchase behavior.
A company's ___ ____ is driven by their ability to fulfill consumer needs.
consumer behavior helps marketers create an effective strategy because
marketers can understand how consumers make decisions
marketing strategy is driven by a company's ability to
fulfill consumer needs
Consumer behavior is ____ behavior.
Consumer behavior is learned behavior.
happens when we encounter new information through stimuli and somehow it impacts our thinking, memory or behavior
It's the collection of all the information we've perceived and stored. There are two parts to memory: long-term and short-term.
we're thinking, perceiving or analyzing at that moment in time.
the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information
where things are permanently stored
the action marketers take to reinforce associations between two stimuli in our minds.
Association helps consumers
decide how to organize and categorize products mentally
it is crucial for marketers to understand how learning impacts consumer behavior because
selecting a product is an entirely learned activity
level of product involvement
how much time we spend considering alternatives before making a purchase
lower involvement purchases
rely more on how familiar you are with a brand - your preferences for and confidence in that brand,
higher involvement purchases
require more thought and more time and less reliance on a brand
Brand Familiarity (loyalty)
brand insistence, brand preference, brand recognition, brand non-recognition, and brand rejection
when nothing else will do. It's the highest level of brand loyalty. No other brand can fill in as a substitute.
when you have a favorite brand over all the others but will entertain alternatives when forced to find a replacement.
when you are made aware of a brand's existence.
when consumers do not recall the brand name.
when you recognize and are even familiar with a brand; however, you refuse to buy it.
brand familiarity becomes important when shopping for convenience products because
consumers don't spend a lot of time or effort considering alternatives
the uncomfortable feeling we just described when it occurs following a high-involvement decision.
Characters of a high-involvement decision
The decision's permanence
The cost of the decision
The importance of the decision in your life
The difficulty of choosing between options
Avoiding Post-Purchase Dissonance
avoid regret by highlighting positive aspects of the product and using direct communication
Direct communication that allow marketers to combat post-purchase dissonance
a thank-you note, calling to make sure you're satisfied or sending you email
helps to reinforce the consumer's choice and create an even more positive brand association for future purchases.
majority of tactics marketers use to help mitigate post purchase dissonance are part of which of the four Ps of marketing?
majority of tactics marketers use to help mitigate post purchase dissonance are part of promotion
three major categories of consumer decisions
nominal, limited, and extended
Purchases on the higher end of the involvement scale are often there because
The product is a large ticket item,
There are many risks involved with making the wrong purchase,
The product has a great significance to the consumer's life
At the other end of the scale, purchases falling on the lower end are
usually lower-priced, routine purchase types of goods.
nominal decision making
It's the least involved type of decision making. (brand loyal)
limited decision making
when we look internally, or to our long-term memory, and briefly evaluate external alternatives. (minimal post purchase evaluation)
For limited decisions, it's key for marketers to use ____ _____ to determine where decision rules
For limited decisions, it's key for marketers to use market research to determine where decision rules
Extended decision making
at the high end of the involvement scale, requiring the most extensive evaluation of alternatives. (lot of external research & post-purchase evaluation)
Culture, values, social class, reference groups and opinion-leader
a set of individual boundaries or norms.
generally held beliefs closely connected to culture about what's acceptable and desirable
where you stand in society compared to others based on education, income and occupation.
groups used to influence our behavior in a given situation
factors that influence buying decision
necessity, relevance, level of commitment, level of confidence
people who continually seek out product- and brand-specific information and often share that information with others (have enduring involvement w/ product category)
enhanced knowledge and experience about a certain product or product category
one of the largest determinants of the level of influence a reference group has on your purchase decision is _____
one of the largest determinants of the level of influence a reference group has on your purchase decision is visibility
Recommended textbook explanations
Richard A. Kasschau
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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