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Foundations - Chapter 19: Specimen Collection and Diagnostic Examination

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Informed Consent
A patient (or responsible family member if the patient is legally incompetent) must fully understand what will be done during a test, surgery, or any medical procedure and must understand its risks and implications before legally consenting to it.
-ography
Procedure in which an image is produced
-ogram
Actual image or results of a test
-oscopy
Visualization of body structures
-centesis
Puncture of a body cavity
Residual Urine
Urine left in the bladder after voiding. It is more than 50 mL of urine remaining in the bladder; the patient may need to have an indwelling catheter inserted.
Stool Specimen
When this is obtained, the specimen hat is placed toward the back of the stool.
Urine Specimen
When this is obtained, the specimen hat is placed toward the front of the stool
Occult
Hidden
Hemoccult Test
Detects occult blood in the feces
Sputum
Secretions in the lung. It contains mucus, cellular debris, or microorganisms, and it may contain blood or pus.
Culture
A laboratory test involving cultivation of microorganisms or cells in a special growth medium..
Sensitivity
A laboratory method of determining the effectiveness of antibiotics, usually performed in conjunction with culture.
Acid-Fast Bacillus
The organism responsible for tuberculosis of the lung
Expectorate
Eject mucus, sputum, or fluids from the trachea and lungs by coughing or spitting. Expectoration fromthe throat and mouth secretions cannot be used as a sputum specimen because saliva with food particles will not give desired results.
Nasotracheal Suctioning
Is required to collect a sputum specimen when a patient cannot expectorate sputum.
Aerobic Organisms
Grow in superficial wounds exposed to the air
Anaerobic Organisms
Tend to grow within the body cavities. To collect an anaerobic specimen deep in a body cavity, the nurse uses a a sterile syringe tip to aspirate visible drainage from the inner wound.
Blood Tests
One of the most commonly used diagnostic aids in the care and evaluation of patients, can yield valuable information about nutritional, hematologic, metabolic, immune, and biochemical status.
Venipuncture
The most common method, involves inserting a hollow-bore needle into the lumen of a large vein to obtain a specimen.
Vacutainer tube
A tube that allows the drawing of multiple blood samples.
Common Venipuncture Sites
Basilic and Cephalic Veins in the Antecubital Space
Tourniquet
A constricting device applied above the bleeding site. It prevents the arterial blood flow to the part below the tourniquet and prevents venous blood from returning to the heart.